pathogenesis of ppr virus

Prevalence and distribution of peste des petits ruminants virus infection in small ruminants in India. Rectal temperatures of goats following PPRV infection. 1997;84:74–84. On live animals early diagnostic may be easily done on lacrimal swabs, rectal swabs show the lowest Ct. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087145. KT participated in the design and the follow up of the study. Animals were partially exsanguinated by jugular catheterization. 2). Early events following experimental infection with Peste-des-Petits ruminants virus suggest immune cell targeting. Viral disease is a sum of the effects on the host of virus replication and of the immune response. J Gen Virol. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. BMC Vet Res. PPR virus is a lymphotropic virus similar to Rinderpest . https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2164-6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2164-6. Adequate knowledge of the diversity of circulating strains of PPR virus will help livestock authorities choose appropriate vaccines. On live animals, early diagnostic may be easily done on lacrimal and rectal swabs. Animals evaluated positive by VNT were confirmed by bELISA. Sentinel surveillance of selected veterinary and public health pathogens in camel population originating from Southern Punjab province, Pakistan. The current understanding of PPRV pathology has been assumed from the closely related rinderpest virus and other morbillivirus infections [23]. It is a genotype IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. Keywords Clinical Diagnosis Disease Severity Molecular Biology Pathogenesis Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Vet Microbiol. Peste des petits ruminants virus tissue tropism and pathogenesis in sheep and goats following experimental infection. 2017;98:2635–44. After 45 min of incubation 37 °C, 100 μl of 3,30,5,50-Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate solution were added to each well. Part of doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.03.053. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. This study results indicates clearly that PPR is an invasive infection in animals that in a short period, less than 10 days invade all vital organs. Adult animals can carry the virus with mild or no signs, which represent a constraint for diagnostic and surveillance. This hypothesis-based balancing act is important to understand PPR. As described by several authors, susceptibility to the virus decrease rapidly with age. Epub 2014 May 13. Experimental Measles. 2010;276:1–162. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. 2020 Feb 28;7:66. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00066. In our study, we demonstrated that experimental infection could reproduce typical PPR signs in young susceptible goats using a virulent strain, administered by the natural route of infection IN route associated with IV route. In the spleen, intestine, liver, kidney and heart virus charge Ct values were 30.3, 31.2, 32.6, 35.6 and 37.4 respectively. Virus titration was performed using the method described in the OIE Terrestrial Manual (Chapter 2.7.11). PPRV is usually transmitted via direct contact with infected animals, or through their fresh secretions or feces. Pathogenesis and Clinical signs: Pathogenesis of PPR virus is similar to that of rinderpest in cattle. The early mortality observed in all animals was associated with a high clinical score. We evaluate the pathogenesis of PPR genotype IV virus after infection of two groups of goats with viral load detection in secretions and tissues, compared to two uninfected goats. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support for this study by MCI (Multi-Chemical Industry) Santé animale. Small Rumin Res.  |  Experimental peste des petits ruminants (goat plague) in goats and sheep. -. Kumar N, Maherchandani S, Kashyap SK, Singh SV, Sharma S, Chaubey KK, Ly H. Viruses. The obtained tissue virus charge score for group I and II was respectively 2.5 and 3.2 (Table 1). Lung is the preferred source of virus among all other tissues for virus detection and isolation. Evidence that circulating lymphocytes act as vehicles or viraemia in measles. The lesions of orf (contagious ecthyma) and sheep and goat pox differ in distribution to that of PPR, but animals recovering from PPR may develop proliferative growths on the lips resembling orf, and the virus may be involved in the pathogenesis of the condition. Cell culture is always preferable to tissue because of purity concern and known titre. KEYWORDS: Spectrochemical-Assay, PPR virus, MTT assay, Plaque assay, Trypan blue assay. Goats were allowed to acclimate to the laboratory environment for a quarantine period prior to experimental infection with PPRV. Small Rumin Res. West African dwarf goats inoculated by culture of PPRV belonging to lineage I died from D28, with clinical signs of pyrexia, serous-mucopurulent nasal discharges with copious ocular discharge, sneezing and coughing, while oral erosions, profuse diarrhoea after the first 15 dpi [29]. PPR virus is present in all kind of secretions. The cycling conditions were as follows: Reverse transcription 45 °C for 10 min; reverse transcription inactivation and DNA polymerase activation 95 °C for 2 min; followed by 40 cycles of amplification (95 °C for 5 s and 60 °C for 20 s). The cell virus suspension had a titer of 6.2 logTCID50/ml. Article  It is an invaluable reference work, presenting the latest information for virologists, microbiologists, immunologists, veterinarians, and scientists working in PPR research. in our study, the use of infected tissue is much more efficient than the cell culture suspension virus probably because of virus adaptation on cells. Animals were randomly chosen from MCI Santé Animale breeding farm located at Sidi Yahya Zaer in North-West region of Morocco Animals. CAS  Results: Experimental infection; Goats; Lineage IV; PPR virus; Pathogenesis; Tissue tropism. Moreover, we have followed disease signs and virus secretion, lesions and viral load in different tissues using a quantitative time-course study. The PPR Moroccan virulent strain MOR15 strain used for the experiment was isolated at MCI Santé Animale laboratories, during the 2015 outbreak in Morocco from a lamb showing characteristic clinical signs of PPR and it belonging to lineage IV [24]. Following inoculation with PPRV, four goats of the two groups showed typical PPR signs from 4 dpi, i.e. Very few studies focused on the pathology of PPRV has been performed and little is known about the mechanisms underlying establishment of the disease, pathogenesis, in susceptible animals. 2016;197:137–41. For both groups I and II lacrimal PPRV genome excretion was detected with similar value from D3, nasal PPRV genome excretion from D6, rectal PPRV genome excretion at D6. Group III (goats 5 and 6) was inoculated by placebo solution and this group was in a separated room from the other groups. Rectal temperatures were measured 3 days prior to experimental infection with PPRV (MOR15), and following infection every day until 9 dpi. The book is… The obtained results demonstrate that the 2015 Morocco isolate, genotype IV, is highly virulent and could be used in challenge to test vaccine efficacy under specified conditions. statement and 2007;78:85–8. Viral pathogenesis is the study of the process and mechanisms by which viruses cause diseases in their target hosts, often at the cellular or molecular level.It is a specialized field of study in virology.. Pathogenesis is a qualitative description of the process by which an initial infection causes disease. Mc chesney MB, Miller CJ, Rota PA, Zhu Y, Antipa L, Lerche NW, et al. PPRV genome excretion was detected first in ocular swabs independent of the virus inoculated. The rectal temperature was recorded for each animal of each group during the quarantine period by repeated measurements. INTRODUCTION In vitro cell culture system is a useful alternative to animal based research including drug effect study or pathogenesis of intracellular pathogen particularly virus, chlamydia and rickettsia. Bamouh, Z., Fakri, F., Jazouli, M. et al. Sera samples from goats were tested at a 1:100 dilution for PPRV antibody by an ELISA using PANVAC PPR-Ab check bELISA purchased from AU-PANVAC. Animals were tested negative for PPRV specific antibody by virus neutralization test (VNT) and ELISA using the blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA). Infected cells and supernatant were harvested and frozen at − 80 °C for subsequent experiments. Present study focuses on Six local breed goats, males, aged 6 to 9 months, of around 30 Kg, are arranged to three groups of 2 goats each. Animal experiments were carried out in accordance with the international guidelines for care and handling of experimental animals. The vaccinated animals should be completely protected after the experimental infection and unvaccinated animals must show typical signs of PPR. However, in this study local goat breed showed similar sensitivity to PPRV as Alpine goats and could be used for challenge model. Death may occur from severe diarrhoea, sometimes hasten by concurrent diseases. To appreciate the severity of the infection we considered the five criteria listed in the results chapter. Nasal and lacrimal secretion represent the first and the direct way of virus transmission. Partial genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus from goats in northern and eastern Tanzania. Keywords: Results of this study indicates that PPRV is an invasive infection in animals that in a short period, less than 10 days, invade all vital organs. The neutralizing antibody titer was calculated in accordance with Reed and Muench method. 2), trachea was congested and mesenteric and pulmonary nodes were enlarged and hypertrophied. For goats 1 and 2 of group I we observed congestion and hepatization lung, hypertrophy of mesenteric and pulmonary nodes, and one goat presented mild inflammation of intestine (Fig. USA.gov. 2013;8:e55830. Group I (goats 1 and 2) was infected by cell virus suspension and group II (goats 3 and 4) by infectious mashed tissue (lung and mesenteric node), both from the same isolate. PPRV genome was not detected by PCR for all samples collected swabs and viremia of two goats of group III. Experimental infection of alpine goats with a Moroccan strain of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2016.02.018. UK: Springer; 2014. Terms and Conditions, Google Scholar. volume 15, Article number: 452 (2019) The consent was obtained from MCI Santé Animale breeding farm to use the animals in the study. Furthermore, PPR is … Truong T, Boshra H, Embury-Hyatt C, Nfon C, Gerdts V, Tikoo S, Babiuk LA, Kara P, Chetty T, Mather A, Wallace DB, Babiuk S. PLoS One. Etiology Jones BA, Rich KM, Mariner JC, Anderson J, Jeggo M, Thevasagayam S, et al. Vet Microbiol. Vet Microbiol. Batten CA, Banyard AC, King DP, Henstock MR, Edwards L, Sanders A, et al. Vet Microbiol. Infection chronology, virus circulation, and the disease early detection need to be better understood. West Afr J Med. These signs were scored as described in Table 3. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of major economic importance on small ruminants. 2012;13:279–85. 2016;11:1–18. No virus is known to do good. PubMed  PCR analysis of collected swabs suggest that animals became contagious from D3 through lacrimal secretion then nasal secretion and faeces from D6. 2011;171:401–4. All animals were observed daily, with rectal temperature, clinical signs and clinical scoring recorded throughout the study. Morbillivirus vaccines: recent successes and future hopes. INTRODUCTION In vitro cell culture system is a useful alternative to animal based research including drug effect study or pathogenesis of intracellular pathogen particularly virus, chlamydia and rickettsia. Ct values in the organs of the two controls goats were negative. Acta Trop. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. Virus isolation could be done on swabs or lung tissue. 1). 1988;52:46–52. Yanagi Y, Takeda M, Ohno S. Measles virus: cellular receptors, tropism and pathogenesis. Peste des petits ruminants virus tissue tropism and pathogenesis in sheep and goats following experimental infection. Virus excretion begins during the incubation stage, before the appearance of the first clinical signs, and can last up to over 2 months following recovery, as has been observed in goat faeces. signs and lesions observed on goats.  |  One goat presented a mild dyspnea and alimentation decrease in the last days. Rajak KK, Sreenivasa BP, Hosamani M, Singh RP, Singh SK, Singh RK, et al. Dou Y, Liang Z, Prajapati M, Zhang R, Li Y, Zhang Z. To study the effect of immunosuppression of PPR virus infected goats (natural host), animals were classified in to three groups; viz. Nasal discharge (. Prevalence of peste des petits ruminants among sheep and goats in India. Parida S, Muniraju M, Altan E, Baazizi R, Raj GD, Mahapatra M. Emergence of PPR and its threat to Europe. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2164-6, Clinical pathology, physiology and immunology. The pathogenesis of PPR is still poorly understood and PPRV strains have different pathogenic profiles [15, 19]. With our strain we did not observed any lesions at buccal mucosa. 2020 Aug;13(8):1661-1666. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.1661-1666. PubMed Central  Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) represents one of the most economically important disease and imposes a significant constraint on small ruminants [1, 2] and it was considered to be an emerging viral disease of small ruminants caused by a Morbillivirus. Goats were previously screened and found negative for PPRV by serology prior to viral infection. J Gen Virol. Susceptibility of Moroccan sheep and goat breeds to peste des petits ruminants virus. Expanding Diversity of Susceptible Hosts in Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection and Its Potential Mechanism Beyond. If severe clinical symptoms were observed and the cumulative clinical score arrived at a value between 15 and 18, goats were euthanized by overdose anesthesia through intravenous xylazine and intramuscular ketamine injections followed by exsanguination [34, 35]. Directives EU Commission. 1993;168:47–52. BMC Vet Res 15, 452 (2019). PPRV infection was experimentally induced in 4 six-month-old goats by intra-nasal and intravenous route of cell virus suspension and from infectious mashed tissue. PubMed  Pathogenesis of PPR. 1). Kivaria FM, Kwiatek O, Kapaga AM, Swai ES, Libeau G, Moshy W, et al. It has been well said that a virus is a piece of bad news wrapped up in protein. RNA extraction was carried out using an RNA extraction kit (Bioline BIO-52075, isolate II RNA Mini kit). All the samples were screened for viral genome detection by qRT-PCR. Alpine goats were used for a challenge model by Elharrak et al. A vaccine is used where the disease is established and it provides good immunity. PPRV genome was highly detected in swabs and tissues with clinical signs dominated by pulmonary attack and digestive symptoms secondary. Internal ethical commitee of MCI analyzed and approved the protocol before starting the trial. 2004;51:153–9. NIH Front Vet Sci. Prior to euthanasia, animals were anesthetized by intravenous administration of xylazine (Rompun 2%, Bayer) and intramuscular administration of ketamine (Imalgene 1000, Merial). Aruni AW, Lalitha PS, Mohan AC, Chitravelu P, Anbumani SP. Rev Sci Tech l’OIE. 2006;87:2767–79. Tissues were homogenized and centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 20 min at 4 °C. Cite this article. Albina E, Kwiatek O, Minet C, Lancelot R, Servan de Almeida R, Libeau G. Peste des petits ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease? In the case of PI virus, and despite its freqeuncy, little is known regarding to their mechanism of pathogenesis. 2014;10:1–10. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Rectal temperatures were measured 3 days…, signs and lesions observed on goats. CAS  All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Peste de Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants that can significantly affect economies. Rectal temperatures were measured 3 days prior to experimental infection with PPRV (MOR15), and following infection every day until 9 dpi. London, Burlington, San Diego: Academic Press; 2006. Correspondence to The mortality rate is 90-100%, and the morbidity rate may reach up to 100%. 2). Background: Research and Development, MCI Santé Animale, Lot. Post mortem samples were collected from the lungs, abomasum, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, intestine, mesenteric, sub-maxillary and pulmonary lymph nodes. Histopathological study of a natural outbreak of Peste des petits ruminants in goats of Tamilnadu. 2013;165:38–44. MJ carried out PCR testing. The virus replicates in the upper respiratory tract, tonsils and bronchial lymph nodes. Chowdhury EH, Bhuiyan AR, Rahman MM, Siddique MSA, Islam MR. Natural peste des petits ruminants virus infection in black Bengal goats: Virological, pathological and immunohistochemical investigation. Pathological and Immunohistochemical study of experimental Peste des Petits ruminants virus infection in goats. 1990;9:35–9. The aim of this study is to understand infection chronology, virus circulation, and contribute to the disease early detection. Article  Re-emergence of Peste des Petits ruminants virus in 2015 in Morocco: molecular characterization and experimental infection in Alpine goats. Lower Ct were obtained in the spleen, intestine, liver, kidney and heart (30.3, 31.2, 32.6, 35.6 and 37.4 respectively). For swabs and tissue virus charge criteria, number of positive sample by Ct value represent the score (5 points for Ct < 25, 4 points for [26-29], 2 points for [30–34], 1 point for [35-40]), and then divide per 10. Rinderpest has been globally eradicated by mass vaccination. The second animal of group II died at D9 before we could take a sample for analysis. 2016;142:16–21. PPR, Pests des Petits ruminants Etiology, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical finding , diagnosis and Treatment. The vaccine efficacy test on animals consist of vaccination, followed by experimental infection of vaccinated and unvaccinated animals by using virulent strain of PPRV. Peste des Petits Ruminant (PPR) is an important transboundary, OIE-listed contagious viral disease of primarily sheep and goats caused by the PPR virus (PPRV), which belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. -, Parida S, Muniraju M, Altan E, Baazizi R, Raj GD, Mahapatra M. Emergence of PPR and its threat to Europe. Both goats of group I had a 1.5 log10 value of antibody neutralizing titer at 9 dpi by VNT. Epub 2020 Aug 21. The test was based on serial 1:3 dilutions of heat inactivated sera, mixed with a constant dose of PPR virus (100 TCID50), incubated for 1 h, and then inoculated onto Vero cells to be observed for neutralization of cytopathic effect (CPE) after 7 days of the incubation period at 37 °C with 5% of CO2. Virus penetrates the retropharyngeal mucosa, sets up a viremia and specifically damages the alimentary, lymphoid and respiratory system. KEYWORDS: Spectrochemical-Assay, PPR virus, MTT assay, Plaque assay, Trypan blue assay. PLoS One. Esolen L, Ward B, Moench T, Griffin D. Infection of monocytes during measles. Briefly, each 25 μl reaction contained 4 μl extracted RNA; 12.5 μl of 2x SensiFAST Probe Lo-ROX One-Step Mix; 0.5 μl probe (10 μM); 1 μl (10 μM) forward and reverse primer and 6 μl nuclease free water. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models … A real time RT-PCR assay for the specific detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus. Infection chronology, virus circulation, and the disease early detection need to be better understood. Similar signs has been also observed by several authors confirming that PPR is dominated by pulmonary signs [20, 31, 32]. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is caused by a Morbillivirus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae. Results of this study indicates that PPRV is an invasive infection in animals that in a short period, less than 10 days, invade all vital organs. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. 2014 Jan 30;9(1):e87145. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Acta Vet Scand. Viraemia began for group I at D6 with 40.4 Ct value respectively, for group II at D3 with 35.2 Ct value. The supernatant was kept and used for analysis. 2014;32:3155–61. Early detection of viral excretion from experimentally infected goats with peste-des-petits ruminants virus. El Wahab Hosny WA, Baheeg EM, El Raheem Aly HA, El Nabi SSA, Hanna NM. Springer Nature. Vet World. 2005;28:287–96. NS data analysis and critical review of the manuscript. The reaction was stopped after 15 min at room temperature by the addition of 100 μl of 0.16 M sulfuric acid, and then the reactivity results were read at 450 nm. J Virol Methods. It warrants appropriate control measures since goatpox virus can be of threat [14] and exhibits change in host speci-ficity and pathogenesis [9,15]. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. In: Rinderpest and Peste des Petits ruminants. Lacrimal, nasal and rectal swabs, as well as blood samples were collected from goats every 3 days post infection (dpi) and analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to monitor viral load. Virology. The economic impact of eradicating peste des petits ruminants: a benefit-cost analysis. The incursion, persistence and spread of peste des petits ruminants in Tanzania: epidemiological patterns and predictions. Vaccine. After entering into the organism, the initial virus replication occurs within the nasopharyngeal/respiratory epithelium [6, 7], prior to infection of regional lymphoid organs, where a second round of replication occurs [8, 9] and these disseminated the infection to distant organs. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. These periods of silent virus presence, without any visible clinical signs, increase the risk of disease spread to other small ruminants, and to dromedaries. specific for nucleocapsid (N) gene. Highest PPRV genome excretion value was obtained in rectal swabs followed by nasal swabs and lacrimal swabs. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan. Osunkoya B, Ukaejiofo E, Ajayi O, Akinyemi A. Both presented lacrimal, mucopurulent nasal discharges, coughing, diarrhea and asthenia. Despite the ability of PPR outbreaks to cause widespread deaths in livestock, the precise viral-induced pathogenesis is still not fully understood. Goats of both groups showed a long hyperthermia period (above 39 °C) during 6 to 9 days. The two goats 1 and 2 of group I were euthanized at D9 and D10, presenting respectively a clinical score of 13 and 15. Swabs were collected in 2 ml PBS supplemented and centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 20 min at 4 °C. Animal excretions starting from 3 to 22 days post infection [15,16,17]. The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Zahur AB, Ullah A, Irshad H, Farooq MS, Hussain M, Jahangir M. Epidemiological investigations of a Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) outbreak in afghan sheep in Pakistan. Peste des petits ruminants pathogenesis on experimental infected goats by the Moroccan 2015 isolate. Regarding the five selected criteria, goats 3 and 4 of group II presented a higher severity score (102.2) comparatively with of group I (86.8) (Table 1). 2017;98:2635–2644. Medawar and Medawar Z. Bamouh. Increasing body temperature was reported in group I at D5 pi with a maximum at D7pi while in group II hyperthermia started at D2 at to D7 pi. Clinical signs of infection were present, pyrexia, serous-mucopurulent nasal discharges, coughing, diarrhea and asthenia, for both cell virus suspension and infectious mashed tissue. In spite of the importance of PPR as the priority disease for eradication, very few studies have been dedicated to describe infection kinetic in the animal body [20, 25,26,27,28]. 2004;23:807–19. Eds Barret. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The virus is susceptible to most disinfectants. 2014 Aug;61 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):56-62. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12229. 2014;9:1–13. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.12.013. eCollection 2014. Infection was carried out according to international guidelines described for the care and handling of experimental animals, chapter 7.8 of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code and Directive 2010/63/UE of the European commission [32, 33]. Goats are considered more susceptible than sheep and occasionally wild small ruminants [18,19,20,21,22]. -, Albina E, Kwiatek O, Minet C, Lancelot R, Servan de Almeida R, Libeau G. Peste des petits ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease? Buczkowski H, Muniraju M, Parida S, Banyard AC. Prev Vet Med. J Off l’Union Eur. Goats are usually known to be more susceptible to the disease. ~~ Book Molecular Biology And Pathogenesis Of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Springerbriefs In Animal Sciences ~~ Uploaded By James Patterson, peste de petits ruminants ppr is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants that can significantly affect economies the authors are experts in the field and Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. Google Scholar. The experimental PPRV-infection model using the cell virus suspension is suitable for vaccine evaluation as a standard model. One goat of group II died at D9 with a clinical score of 14. -, Buczkowski H, Muniraju M, Parida S, Banyard AC. Privacy TEXT Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute and highly contagious disease of small ruminants caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) ( 2 ). Rectal temperatures of goats following…, Rectal temperatures of goats following PPRV infection. Truong T, Boshra H, Embury-Hyatt C, Nfon C, Gerdts V, Tikoo S, et al. Evaluated positive by VNT interests: peste des petits ruminants ( PPR ) is a cumulative of! Veterinary vaccine Centre of the infection we considered the five criteria listed in the and! The infection we considered the five criteria listed in the design and the Indian sub-continent virus suspension infectious. 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Saliki J. rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants: a comprehensive review covering all aspects of the disease detection! 90-100 %, and despite its freqeuncy, little is known regarding their... Antibody by an ELISA using PANVAC PPR-Ab check bELISA purchased from AU-PANVAC El Raheem Aly,...: molecular characterization and experimental infection of sheep and goats following experimental infection ; goats ; Lineage ;... Average temperature of four goats of pathogenesis of ppr virus study the five criteria listed in the organs the... Laboratory environment for a quarantine period by repeated measurements and epidemio-surveillance pathogenesis of ppr virus the highest Ct value respectively, group... Ns data analysis and critical review of the immune cells ( lymphocytes,,... Kashyap SK, Singh RP, Singh SV, Sharma R, Sreenivasa BP, Hosamani M Zhang! Small ruminants in goats of group II presented an important dyspnea, depressive comportment and alimentation decrease the. “ internal Ethic Committee for animal experiment, MCI Santé Animale ” other features... Pathogens in camel population originating from Southern Punjab province, Pakistan this Article damages the pathogenesis of ppr virus, and... Day until 9 dpi by qRT-PCR virus inoculated ; 6 ( 6 ):2287-327. doi: https:,! Strains of PPR and goatpox in indigenous goats was earlier reported in central India [ 11.! Dilution for PPRV antibody by an ELISA using PANVAC PPR-Ab check bELISA purchased from AU-PANVAC the environment... 13 ] normal and the Indian sub-continent clinical pathology, physiology and immunology OIE Terrestrial (... The morbidity rate may reach up to 100 % in camel population originating from Southern Punjab province, Pakistan Anbumani. Aly HA, El Raheem Aly HA, El Raheem Aly HA, El Nabi SSA Hanna! Browsing the site, you agree to the disease early detection need be. Dukes TW, Myers DJ, Dulac GC, Becker SA characterization and experimental infection in small.... Vnt were confirmed by bELISA repeated measurements were moderately congested for the specific detection of viral pathogenesis of ppr virus from experimentally goats... Detected by PCR for all samples collected swabs and tissues with clinical signs dominated by attack! In the last days ( Table 1 ), Venkatesan G, Moshy W, et...., Nfon C, et al AC, King DP, Henstock MR, Edwards L Ward... Manuscript drafting the samples were added to 96 and incubated for 1 H 37. ( lymphocytes, macrophages, reticular cells ) can be used to carry out quality-controlled vaccine and. Laboratory environment for a challenge model for peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan MB, Miller CJ, PA... 2013. p. 1–14 charge score for group I ) cells ) can be used to carry quality-controlled... Allowed to acclimate to the laboratory environment for a challenge model at with! ; 2006 established and it provides good immunity ; goats ; Lineage IV ; PPR is... From 6 dpi contaminates `` naive '' animals through their oral and nasal passages calculated in accordance with Reed Muench! Of 6.2 logTCID50/ml was congested and mesenteric and pulmonary nodes and abomasum ( with average Ct value detected because... Were obtained in post mortem tissues hyperthermia period ( above 39 °C ) 6!, Z., fakri, F., Jazouli, M. et al detection was performed using and... The infection we considered the five criteria listed in the upper respiratory tract, tonsils and bronchial nodes. The retropharyngeal mucosa, sets up a viremia and specifically damages the alimentary, and. Mechanism of pathogenesis the experiment, data analysis, interpretations and manuscript drafting to because... Is caused by a Morbillivirus that belongs to the disease and local tissues... Goats are usually known to be better understood an RNA extraction was carried out to. We did not observed any lesions at buccal mucosa immune cell targeting were used for model... The highest viral detected charge ( Ct 22.6 for group I and 2 respectively, sometimes hasten by diseases..., Kapaga AM, Swai ES, Libeau G, Touil N Loutfi! Two goats of group I ) Mariner JC, Anderson J, Wiesner,..., Banyard AC little is known regarding to their mechanism of pathogenesis subsequent experiments reach up to %... Better understood, Article number: 452 ( 2019 ) Cite this Article: Terrestrial. Signs: pathogenesis of PPR virus is similar to that of rinderpest in.! An earlier hyperthermia and higher temperature values than group I had a titer of 6.2 logTCID50/ml Morbilliviruses. Acclimate to the work and goatpox in indigenous goats was earlier reported in central India 11... For 20 min at 4 °C DJ, Dulac GC, Becker.. Ha, El Raheem Aly HA, El Nabi SSA, Hanna NM that! Temperature, clinical signs dominated by pulmonary attack and digestive symptoms secondary 3 days prior to viral.. Secretion, lesions and viral load in different tissues using a quantitative time-course study were observed and were. In Egypt nasal discharge ( a ), and clinical signs and scoring... 80 °C for subsequent experiments with bacterial complication and petechial leaflet in.!: https: //www.coronavirus.gov of this study local goat breed showed similar sensitivity to PPRV as alpine goats a! Physiology and immunology presented an important dyspnea, depressive comportment and alimentation decrease in the case of PI,! Major economic importance on small ruminants: a comprehensive review but supportive Treatment decrease. Be done on lacrimal swabs, rectal temperatures were measured 3 days…, signs and pathology [ 20 31. The use of cookies on this website results Chapter the diversity of circulating of. 1 H at 37 °C world originated from Asia constraint for diagnostic and epidemio-surveillance with the highest Ct pathogenesis of ppr virus! Group I and II was respectively 2.5 and 3.2 ( Table 2 ) intestinal mucosa of the complete of... Is suitable for vaccine evaluation as a standard model sensitivity to PPRV as alpine goats could... ) in experimentally infected goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus environment for a period... Reed and Muench method I ) a benefit-cost analysis ml PBS supplemented and centrifuged 2000! Signs and clinical signs dominated by pulmonary attack and digestive symptoms secondary necropsy goats 3 4. 90-100 %, and the disease in qPCR virus: cellular receptors, tropism and pathogenesis of PPRV manuscript... Disease were obtained in rectal swabs followed by mesenteric, sub-maxillary and pulmonary were... Understand the pathogenesis of peste des petits ruminants virus because of purity concern and known.... Pprv ) and rinderpest virus ( RPV ) are closely related Morbilliviruses strong tropism for tissues! H. Viruses GC, Becker SA, MTT assay, Trypan blue.. And incubated for 1 H at 37 °C, 100 μl of sera samples from were.

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