ppr disease control

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Presented By: Bhuwan Raj Bhatta Roll.No: 03(Three) IAAS, Paklihawa Campus 1 2. In Mali, small ruminants (SRs) are an important means for enhanced livelihood through income generation, especially for women and youth. PPR is an economically important trans-boundary disease of sheep and goats. PPR is also an OIE-reportable disease worldwide. • What is the impact of PPR disease in this area? Eradication of the disease by 2030 is its main goal. The first step in the eradication of a disease is accurate and reliable diagnosis. Determine the appropriate vaccination strategy (when to vaccinate? The OIE and the FAO, in their joint strategy for control and eradication of PPR, have set the goal of eradicating the disease by 2030. The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), is implementing the Epidemiology and Control of Peste des Petits Ruminants (Eco-PPR) research Goat pox, PPR and foot and mouth diseases are the most common viral goat diseases. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. In order to understand better PPR at the wildlife–livestock interface, we investigated patterns of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exposure, disease outbreaks, and viral sequences in … We sought to evaluate changes in the short and long term mortality of AMI patients with RD compared to patients with normal renal function over the last decade. Most village households keep a few goats as a ready supply of meat and the disease is endemic, thus, the usual control methods of hygiene, sanitation, segregation, etc. It was first reported in Cote d’Ivoire (the Ivory Coast) in 1942 and subsequently in other parts of West Africa. Two south Indian states, namely Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, strongly indicated possibility of PPR control with more than 90 % reduction in number of reported outbreaks of PPR, mostly through mass vaccination. The PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy (PPR GCES) was endorsed at the International Conference for the Control and Eradication of PPR, organized by FAO and OIE in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, 31 March–2 April 2015. The cELISA result supported 77.7% (94/121) (90.7% in Oyo; 25.0% in Lagos) of the total RBT positive samples. OUTLINE 1. Some of the countries have initiated PPR control measures either For goats suspected to be incubating disease, sero-vaccination can be practiced or some compensation paid for the deaths occurring as a result of vaccination in the initial stages. Unfortunately, opportunities for livestock farmers to tap into these resources for economic growth are hindered by high burden of endemic diseases such as peste des petits ruminants (PPR). This is quite possible because of high ambient temperature and lack of perfect cold chain maintenance during the storage and transportation of vaccine. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease affecting goats, sheep and wild ruminants. The virus is a serious paramount challenge to the sustainable agriculture advancement in the developing world. In addressing the risk of PPR to Laos to protect the livelihoods of small ruminant smallholder farmers from losses, it is important to investigate if PPR is already present in Laos. The frequency of antibodies against PPR recorded was 67.65, 71.11 and 60.23% in the months of December, January and February and 50.67 and 53.0% in the months of September and October, respectively. relevance, PPR is regarded as an Office International des Epizooties (OIE) list A (A050) disease. Two main problems have been encountered with the use of TCRV; (i), it produces abortions and side reactions in the form of mild to frank PPR in goats incubating the disease and (ii), there are some reports of vaccine-breaks. To strengthen surveillance incorporating an emergency response mechanism Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of goats and sheep. Prevention Methods Kill the seriously infected animal as soon as possible, so that the germ can’t spread everywhere. Furthermore, a total of 7,868 published sequences were included in the comparative analysis, which revealed an east-west geographic pattern of haplogroup distribution and led to the conclusion that the gene flow from Southeastern Asia mainly involved one mitochondrial clade. The only drawback of this commercial sungri/96 vaccine is thermo-sensitivity. National and International Control Policy. Our findings reveal low sero-prevalence of brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Southwestern Nigeria. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute or subacute viral disease of goats and sheep characterized by fever, necrotic stomatitis, gastroenteritis, pneumonia, and sometimes death. Under the auspices of the FAO and OIE Global Framework for the progressive control of Trans- boundary animal diseases (GF-TADs)some 40 veterinary professionals and scientists met in Dar es Salaam, Tanzanian, from 10 – 12 June 2013 to assess the situation of Peste des petits ruminants(PPR) in the Southern African Development Community(SADC) region, the challenges posed by the disease and the … Overall, 2 480 cattle (1 241 in Oyo; 1 239 in Lagos) were screened. Differences in susceptibility and receptivity depending on breed and species. Eradication of the disease by 2030 is its main goal. Prevention of PPR- Vaccination Vaccination is the most compelling way to prevent and control PPR. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. PO Box 30709 Nairobi 00100, Kenya +254-20 422 3000 +254-20 422 3001; ILRI-Kenya@cgiar.org ; ILRI Ethiopia. The similarity between PPR virus and rinderpest virus allows for the lessons learned from rinderpest eradication to be used in the PPR eradication strategy. The PPR global control and eradication strategy has been endorsed by more than 200 countries with the vision of a PPR-free world by 2030. A bivalent thermostable vaccine (PPR and sheep/goat pox). PPR To control both PPR clinical disease and infection in a specific zone or production system To achieve PPR eradication throughout the national territory To build evidence that there is no clinical disease nor virus circulation 1 – 3 years 2 – 3 years 2 to 5 years 2 to 3 years . Patients with renal dysfunction (RD) who present with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at a high risk for subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Control of PPR outbreaks relies on movement control (quarantine) combined with the use of focused ("ring") vaccination and prophylactic immunization in high-risk populations. Foot and Mouth Disease. As per global strategy for the control and eradication of PPR by FAO/OIE, the disease causes an estimated global economic loss of US$ 1.2–1.7 billion annually . 2. Review infection control measures to ensure they are providing an adequate level of safety. 30-31, Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Volume 308, Issues 1–2, 2011, pp. INTRODUCTION: PPR AND ITS CONTROL TOOLS 2. ILRI Kenya. Prognosis of patients with RD admitted with AMI has significantly improved over the last decade, possibly due to an improvement of pharmacological and non-pharmacological management. The control of PPR in endemic settings poses a series of challenges that need to be systematically addressed. Despite a lack of data on the socio-economic impact of PPR epizootics, cost of control measures to be set up, and expected benefits, it is certain that the loss of small ruminant livestock fuels poverty and impedes rural development in the countries in the South where the disease is present.. The objectives of this work, the elements of the Control Strategy and the time plan for its establishment were presented and discussed in … Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), also known as sheep and goat plague, is a highly contagious animal disease affecting small ruminants. 747-753, Control of peste des petits ruminants in Nigeria, Nodding Syndrome in the Spotlight – Placing Recent Findings in Perspective. However, all these losses can be avoided if an effective thermo tolerant PPR vaccine is made available and applied under field settings. To investigate risk factors responsible for the epidemiology of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in Nigeria in a bid to implement control strategies. PPR; disease control; animal diseases; epidemiology; vaccines; Active. Sim- ilarly, the situation at the national level also demonstrated a decline of more than 75 % in the number of reported outbreaks. Viral Goat Disease. PPR QUALITY CONTROL AT AU/PANVAC 1. A key component for the control of PPR is vaccination of SRs. PPR is a list A disease of the OIE, and thus member states are required to inform the OIE of the occurrence of the disease in their territory. Among patients with reduced eGFR: 1251 patients (45%) were included in the 2002–2005 surveys (early period) and 1519 (55%) in the 2006–2010 surveys (late period). vaccinate dromedaries? Endemic in large parts of the world, PPR causes severe damages to animal production and household economies. Single-plane compensatory phase shift of head and eye oscillations in infantile nystagmus syndrome, Temporal trends in the outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction associated with renal dysfunction over the past decade, Mitochondrial diversity of Yoruba and Fulani chickens: A biodiversity reservoir in Nigeria, Risk factors associated with brucellosis among slaughtered cattle: Epidemiological insight from two metropolitan abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria. 1-year mortality rates were significantly lower among patients with RD who were enrolled during the late vs. early survey periods: 22% vs. 25% respectively; (Log-rank P-value < 0.001). At Stage 1 the epidemiological situation is assessed. The distribution and prevalence of antibodies to PPRV among various age groups of animals indicated that the higher prevalence (72.86%) occurred at >2 years compared with the other age groups. Small ruminants are often important assets for livestock keepers in developing countries, but these assets are threatened by PPR. To implement monitoring activities and evaluate socio-economic impacts. Copyright © 1984 Published by Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-5877(84)90058-8. Stage 1 (Assessment) Stage 2 (Control) Stage 3 (Eradication) Stage 4 (Post-eradication) Surveillance. Introduction Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus infection is characterised by severe bronchopneumonia, mucopurulent nasal discharge, stomatitis and enteritis, followed by recovery or death. PPR is currently present in North, Central, West and East Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. The PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy (PPR GCES) was endorsed at the International Conference for the Control and Eradication of PPR, organized by FAO and OIE in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, 31 March–2 April 2015. Goat farming has immense potential to expand. SADC CONTROL STRATEGY FOR PESTE DES PETIT RUMINANTS (PPR) 4 1. Existence of sensitive and specific diagnostic tools. To provide the first comprehensive overview of the maternal lineages in Southwest Nigeria, we analyzed 96 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 2 indigenous chicken ecotypes: Fulani and Yoruba. DISEASE CONTROL IN AFRICA QA ensures that: - Production and control operations are clearly specified and GMP adopted - Arrangements are made for the manufacture, supply and ... order to meet up with the increasing challenges of PPR disease control and eradication on … About 62.5 % populations of total small ruminants are at risk due to PPR globally [18]. Parameters of individual animal were also obtained. Data were analyzed by using STATA version 12 and Chi-square; and logistic regression statistics were used to test association. A one-time vaccination can immunize ruminants for life against Peste des Petits Ruminants or sheep and goat plague. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute febrile viral disease of small ruminants characterized by mucopurulent nasal and ocular discharges, necrotizing stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia. Eye-in-space (gaze) displacement during nystagmic oscillations was thereby reduced suggesting a central adaptive behavior that may have evolved to partly compensate for the abnormal eye movements during reading. The overarching PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy (PPR GCES) is based on four stages that combine decreasing levels of epidemiological risk with increasing levels of prevention and control. The disease is of considerable economic importance in countries such as Tanzania, where small ruminant products are important for sustainable livelihoods. At Stage 1 the epidemiological situation is assessed. PPR control and eradication programme in Afghanistan ... group for the programme because their nomadic way of life and animal movements mean that the potential for infectious disease spread is high. A mainly vertical-horizontal spontaneous nystagmus was evident in both conditions, whereas head nodding emerged in the second condition. The disease contributes to loss of the live export trade in sheep and goats because PPR is a list A disease; however, in most countries where it occurs other list A diseases would also require to be eradicated or controlled before PPRV was the limiting constraint to trade. Although only 11 different haplotypes were detected, with 2 of them never found before in Nigeria, the presence of unique sequences among our indigenous samples testified to their status as an important genetic resource to be preserved. Rapid tests that can be used in the field. Develop a dynamic map of trade and transhumance routes for each country. Progressive control through vaccination Despite a lack of data on the socio-economic impact of PPR epizootics, cost of control measures to be set up, and expected benefits, it is certain that the loss of small ruminant livestock fuels poverty and impedes rural development in the countries in the South where the disease is present. A key component of the Workshop was the introduction and discussion of the work of FAO and OIE to develop a Global PPR Control Strategy. PPR is an important killer disease for small ruminant populations, e.g., sheep and goat. The present study was conducted in view of determining the disease situation in different geographical regions, seasons, age, sex groups and species of small ruminants. Recently, a homologous PPR vaccine has been developed and the vaccine seed is available through … When the disease appears in a previously unaffected area, the standard disease control measures consisting of quarantine, movement control, sanitary slaughter, and cleaning and disinfection are applied. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease, caused by a morbillivirus closely related to rinderpest virus, which affects goats, sheep, and some wild relatives of domesticated small ruminants. Symptoms: PPR disease causes symptoms of fever, nasal mucous discharge, mouth lesion and respiratory distress. Small ruminants are an important source of animal protein since raising of cattle is difficult due to trypanosomiasis in this zone. This was verified by the significant negative peak of the crosscorrelogram at zero lag. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an eminent transboundary animal disease (TAD), recognized as priority disease by the GF-TADs Steering Committee for Europe, causes high morbidity and mortality. In this paper we present a review of many of the diseases of sheep for which specific IHC has been reported including the sources of the reagents and technical aspects of the methodologies. Elements. A new generation vaccine inducing the production of antibodies that differ from the antibodies produced through natural infection. No prolonged carrier state after infection. by using Rose Bengal test (RBT), and positive samples were subjected to competitive ELISA (cELISA). Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease affecting domestic and small wild ruminants. Understand virus population dynamics and the determinants of virulence. The overarching PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy (PPR GCES) is based on four stages that combine decreasing levels of epidemiological risk with increasing levels of prevention and control. In 2015, FAO and OIE launched a global eradication program (GCSE) based on … PPR (peste des petits ruminants) is a most important viral disease of goat capable of heavy mortality and commonly called as goat plague. The only recourse left is to control the disease by vaccination. When available for use on formalin fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples, it can be used widely for prospective cases as well as on retrospective studies on archive material. Read previous related posting on Preventive care for diseases in Sheep and Goat. Today, there is an increased interest in investing in animal disease control and PPR is one of the targeted diseases for many governments and their development partners. without which the full effect of PPR control may not be economically appreciated. Patients with RD were more likely to have advanced cardiovascular disease, multiple comorbidities and higher in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality rates (8.1%,12.3% and 23% vs. 0.7%, 1.7% and 4%, respectively; all p < 0.001). The current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought into sharp focus the interconnectedness of people, animals and the environment and how this can contribute to the spread of disease. Threatening this, however, is a devastating and highly contagious livestock disease known as Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), or sheep and goat plague. of these may die. Uganda: how goes the nodding syndrome war? One Health is a concept that recognizes that the health and well-being of people is … PPR is the one of the priority animal diseases whose control is considered important for poverty alleviation in enzootic countries. Nepal had experienced several episodes of PPR outbreaks in the past. PPR is currently present in North, Central, West and East Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR): developing a pan African strategy for disease control. “We intend to control and eventually eradicate PPR disease by 2027 under the Sh6.2 billion strategy which is in line with the global plan to end the disease by 2030,” he said. • How can PPR control be improved in this area? Identify control measures adapted to the epidemiological situation (enzootic country, disease-free country at high risk, disease-free country), different livestock systems and herd management practices, and the socio-economic context. The global strategy for the control and eradication of peste des petits ruminants has been endorsed by more than 200 countries with the vision of a world free of the disease by 2030. Small ruminants are an important source of animal protein since raising of cattle is difficult due to trypanosomiasis in this zone. National control strategy. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) What is being done to prevent or control the disease? 88-92, Poultry Science, Volume 99, Issue 6, 2020, pp. Jan 2019 Dec 2023 Boosting Uganda’s investment in livestock development. The OIE and FAO are keen to control and subsequently eradicate PPR from the globe, as has been practiced for Rinderpest (RP). 2852-2860, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, Volume 5, Issue 9, 2015, pp. In a joint strategy for control and eradication of PPR, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and Food and Agriculture organisation (FAO) set the goal of eradicating the disease by 2030. BRIEF OVERVIEW OF AU-PANVAC 4. The virus is infective for only a short period outside a host. QC TESTS. Between March and August 2013, cattle were screened for antibodies to Brucella spp. Existence of a safe and effective vaccine that can be used against all of the viral lineages, confers life-long immunity with a single dose, and is inexpensive to produce Innovations soon to be available: A bivalent thermostable vaccine (PPR and sheep/goat pox). • Household survey: Administered to a man and woman in each household (when possible) to understand PPR epidemiology, flock movement, socioeconomic impact of disease, and responsibilities and decision-making in small ruminant production between household members. disease prevention and control with a focus on PPR. Seroprevalence studies of PPR can indicate past exposure to PPRV and demonstrate regions to target in future incidence studies and disease control programs. Sources of further information on PPR are listed at the end of this document. Control: Local and federal authorities should be notified when PPR is suspected. This disease strategy will cover the pertinent etiology and ecology of PPR, as well as control and eradication strategies. Attempts to develop cell culture attenuated homologous PPR vaccine have not yet been successful but heterologous tissue culture rinderpest vaccine (TCRV) has been found to afford solid protection against PPR for over a year. ECo-PPR stands for the eradication and control of PPR. Vaccinate the healthy animal timely to prevent this disease. Control Measure: Affected goats should be separated from the flock and vaccination once in a year should be carried out. Sex and location of abattoirs where animals are slaughtered are major risk factors to be considered in the epidemiology of the disease. , For millions of smallholder farmers, small ruminants – sheep and goats – provide a vital source of food, income, and security. PPR (Peste des Petits Ruminants) 1. To propose a methodology for the long term eradication of PPR from the SADC region Keep the house clean and germ free always. The disease is endemic in several countries of Asia, Middle East and Africa. Until recently, the most practical vaccination against PPR made use of tissue culture rinderpest vaccine. The head oscillated only in the vertical plane and concomitant analysis of eye and head displacement revealed a counterphase, compensatory pattern of the first harmonic of the INS waveform. A recently published study suggests that NS is an autoimmune disorder based on findings of cross-reacting antibodies between neuronal structures and a protein present in Onchocerca volvulus (OV). In Uganda, around 70% of all households keep at least one kind of livestock (including poultry). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 2017, Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 2008, The Economics of Animal Health and Production, Trends in Parasitology, Volume 33, Issue 7, 2017, pp. Should be carried out livestock development, education, dietary is difficult due to rate. Stands for the detection of antibodies against PPR virus and rinderpest virus allows for control! Left is to control the disease is ppr disease control circulating in Asian and African countries, only! Population dynamics and the need to control the disease to ensure you have the most common goat. Level also ppr disease control a decline of more than 200 countries with the vision of disease... Million chickens are raised in extensive systems and 60 million in semi-intensive systems social! ) 90058-8 to control other major diseases of small ruminants, like, mange coccidiosis! Countries such as Tanzania, where small ruminant flocks Internal Medicine, Volume 99, Issue,... 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