advantages of thematic analysis

Lean Library can solve it. The themes were not considered final until all of the data had been read through and the coding scrutinized by the research team to insure the credibility of the findings. In writing this article, we attempt to fill this gap in the literature. Sections of data may be included in multiple themes with some overlap between themes (Pope, Ziebland, & Mays, 2000). Qualitative research is a valued paradigm of inquiry and the complexity that surrounds qualitative research requires rigorous and methodical methods to create useful results. We have adopted the term ‘thematic Hierarchical coding allows the researcher to analyze texts at varying levels of specificity with broad higher order codes providing an overview and detailed lower order codes allowing for distinctions to be made within and between cases (King, 2004). Researchers will move from unstructured data to the development of ideas about what is going on in the data (Morse & Richards, 2002). Researchers may also find codes that do not seem to belong anywhere. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. “Thematic analysis is a method of identifying, analysing and reporting patterns (themes) within data” (Braun & Clarke, 2006, p.79). There is insufficient literature that outlines the pragmatic process for conducting trustworthy the-matic analysis. Although thematic analysis has been described (Aronson, 1994; Attride-Stirling, 2001; Crabtree & Miller, 1999; King, 2004), guides on conducting thematic analysis have primarily focused on conducting research with an applied focus (Guest, MacQueen, & Namey, 2011) or described inductive versus deductive coding (Fereday & Muir-Cochrane, 2006). Declaration of Conflicting InterestsThe author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Data will be reduced into a more manageable set of significant themes that succinctly summarize the text (Attride-Stirling, 2001). Team meetings were held to discuss each of the themes and to ensure the themes held true across all cases (e.g., individual SCNs). Individual members of the research team discussed their personal insights into the research findings to ensure that all aspects of the data were thoroughly analyzed. The process of peer debriefing, with someone who knows a great deal about the substantive area of the inquiry and the method of thematic analysis, will help expose the researcher to aspects of the research that might otherwise remain unspoken (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). In offering our own personal insights and practical examples, it is our hope that the process of conducting a rigorous and trustworthy thematic analysis has been illustrated in a way that helps those in the process of interpreting and representing textual data. To be accepted as trustworthy, qualitative researchers must demonstrate that data analysis has been conducted in a precise, consistent, and exhaustive manner through recording, systematizing, and disclosing the methods of analysis with enough detail to enable the reader to determine whether the process is credible. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. We also define thematic analysis and the trustworthiness criteria created by Lincoln and Guba (1985). Thus the definition of thematic analysis clears it like a crystal that this method is way beyond quotations of the texts which is analyzed. Excel spreadsheet with log of collected data. This approach is flexible in that there is no specific research design associated with thematic analysis; it can be utilized for case studies, phenomenology, generic qualitative, and narrative inquiry to name a few. To become immersed in the data involves the repeated reading of the data in an active way searching for meanings and patterns. With an inductive approach, the themes identified are strongly linked to the data themselves and may bear little relation to the specific questions that were asked of the participants. Highlighting the process of how to conduct a trustworthy thematic analysis may be a positive contribution to qualitative research as a methodology and help to the advance the elusive research method: thematic analysis. All members of the research team worked systematically through entire data sets, giving full and equal attention to each data item. In this way, thematic analysis … In order for the discussion to be credible, the researcher should discuss all of the relevant results, including results that were unexpected or did not correspond to the main explanations of the phenomenon being studied (Côté & Turgeon, 2005). There are qualitative and quantitative methods of research and it falls under the previous method. Through its theoretical freedom, thematic analysis provides a highly flexible approach that can be modified for the needs of many studies, providing a rich and detailed, yet complex account of data (Braun & Clarke, 2006; King, 2004). The output of the analysis is a list of themes mentioned in text. Different methodologies and theories can be applied while doing a thematic analysis of a text and that is why a correct conclusion can be obtained from research. These theme names identify that, for example, ‘benefits of X’ was an important area of the data in relation to the research question(s), but they don’t communicate the essence of this theme… Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Creswell (2014) described a systematic process for coding data in which specific statements are analyzed and categorized into themes that represent the phenomenon of interest. You also consider potential pitfalls in organizing thematic analysis. Thematic analysis has been identified as one of a range of potential methods for research synthesis alongside meta-ethnography and ‘metasynthesis’, though precisely what the method involves is unclear, and there are few examples of it being used for synthesising research (Dixon-Woods et al., 2005). Volume 20, No. A lecture given by Dr Victoria Clarke at the University the West of England, Bristol, UK, in November 2017. o Draw connections from the real world. Interviewees provided both written and verbal consent to participate. A thematic analysis strives to identify patterns of themes in the interview data. This will confer accuracy and intricacy and enhance the research’s whole Under such a state the best way to precept them is thematic analysis by which they can be understood easily. The analytic credibility of the research will depend on the coherence of the argument. It is useless to read a text or observe it if someone is not able to decode all the themes that are present in it. As qualitative research becomes increasingly recognized and valued, it is imperative to conduct it in a rigorous and methodical manner to yield meaningful and useful results (Attride-Stirling, 2001). More the number of people working towards the analysis of a text higher will be the aptness of the research output. In addition to proposing plausible interpretations, the researcher may add to the knowledge of the subject through new theoretical or practical interpretations (Côté & Turgeon, 2005). We argue that thematic analysis is a qualitative research method that can be widely used across a range of epistemologies and research questions. The lack of substantial literature on thematic analysis—compared to that of grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology, for example—may cause novice researchers to feel unsure of how to conduct a rigorous thematic analysis. Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. Inductive analysis is a process of coding the data without trying to fit it into a preexisting coding frame or the researcher’s analytic preconceptions. Some themes may collapse into each other while other themes may need to be broken down into separate themes (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Researchers may choose to use one of the software programs to aid in the sorting and organizing the data. When the researcher interweaves literature with the findings, the story constructed stands with merit (Aronson, 1994). To achieve dependability, researchers can ensure the research process is logical, traceable, and clearly documented (Tobin & Begley, 2004). Once such example was the code commentary. The process of conducting a thematic analysis is illustrated through the presentation of an auditable decision trail, guiding interpreting and representing textual data. When conducting data analysis, the researcher becomes the instrument for analysis, making judgments about coding, theming, decontextualizing, and recontextualizing the data (Starks & Trinidad, 2007). Researchers are encouraged to engage with the analysis as a faithful witness to the accounts in the data, being honest and vigilant about their own perspectives, preexisting thoughts and beliefs, and developing theories (Starks & Trinidad, 2007). If readers are not clear about how researchers analyzed their data or what assumptions informed their analysis, evaluating the trustworthiness of the research process is difficult. The thematic teaching approach organizes a semester's teaching goals around a specific theme. Thematic planning involves integrating curriculum areas around topics or themes, making it possible to classifying instructions along core areas such as science, arts and social studies. Advantages: § Connections o Helps students understand connections and how to connect. King warned researchers not be so strongly guided by the research question that themes which are not obviously of direct relevance are disregarded. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. Briefly, thematic analysis (TA) is a popular method for analysing qualitative data in many disciplines and fields, and can be applied in lots of different ways, to lots of different datasets, to address lots of different research questions! In qualitative research, this concerns only to case-to-case transfer (Tobin & Begley, 2004). The first step is to get to know our data. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Themes are identified by bringing together components or fragments of ideas or experiences, which often are meaningless when viewed alone (Aronson, 1994). Detailed notes about the development of subthemes were kept in the codebook and included in the audit trail and help establish confirmability. Regardless of the form of data collection, archiving all records of the raw data provides an audit trail and a benchmark against which later data analysis and interpretations can be tested for adequacy (Halpren, 1983; Lincoln & Guba, 1985). DeSantis and Ugarriza (2000) offered the following definition of the concept of theme to guide nurse researchers in maintaining methodological rigor: “A theme is an abstract entity that brings meaning and identity to a recurrent experience and its variant manifestations. King (2004) suggested that direct quotes from participants are an essential component of the final report. In writing this article, we attempt to fill this gap in the literature. There is insufficient literature that outlines the pragmatic process for conducting trustworthy thematic analysis. Although thematic analysis as documented by Braun and Clarke (2006) will be presented here as a linear, six-phased method, it is actually an iterative and reflective process that develops over time and involves a constant moving back and forward between phases. Although there are many advantages to using thematic analysis, it is important to also acknowledge the disadvantages of this method. A qualitative study, Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Figure 4 illustrates a much-refined version of the themes and subthemes for the topic of defining engagement. I would say that thematic analysis (TA) is indeed quite useful and suimple to apply. We used an Excel spreadsheet to log all raw data and to detail the team’s progress in collecting and converting raw data to text that could be subsequently analyzed in NVivo (version 11) (Figure 2). Once the final themes were established, we started the process of writing up the reports. Here, our findings were contrasted with the broader literature, and we identified where our findings were supported, contradicted, or added to the current body of knowledge on the topic. So if you are not able to write your essays, thesis and research paper on psychology then assignments help can be taken from experts. Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology. A theme is not necessarily dependent on quantifiable measures but rather on whether it captures something important in relation to the overall research question (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Researchers need to distinguish if they are conducting an inductive or deductive thematic analysis as it will inform how themes are theorized (Braun & Clarke, 2006). We covered a wide variety of concepts in our interviews, so we initially utilized the conceptual framework to develop broad, higher order codes to help organize the data. Figure 3. For each individual theme, researchers need to conduct and write a detailed analysis, identifying the story that each theme tells (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Koch (1994) recommended researchers include markers such as the reasons for theoretical, methodological, and analytical choices throughout the entire study, so that others can understand how and why decisions were made. Advantages of Thematic Analysis. Thematic analysis becomes a part of psychology where you are guided with clarity on how to start a thematic analysis. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. Any changes to the analytic approach were documented in auditable notations in the codebook. There can be as many levels of coding as the researcher finds useful, but too many levels can be counterproductive to the goal of attaining clarity in organizing and interpreting the data (King, 2004). Thematic analysis is one of the most common forms of analysis within qualitative research. The fourth phase begins once a set of themes has been devised, and they now require refinement (Braun & Clarke, 2006). A detailed account of thematic analysis research in qualitative methods on psychology is given here. We also presented themes, subthemes, and exemplar quotes in a table, which aided us in keeping the report within journal word limits. If data were collected through interactive means, researchers will come to the analysis with some prior knowledge of the data and possibly some initial analytic interests or thoughts. Investing sufficient time to develop the themes will increase the probability of developing credible finding (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). It is possible to work in a team when the theory of thematic analysis is applied in the qualitative research method. These themes are discovered by analyzing word and the sentence structures. o Models for Students the Resources Used in Research King (2004) suggested that if there remain any sections of text which are clearly relevant to the research question, but are not included, the themes cannot be finalized. First phase, researchers review the coded data within themes should cohere together meaningfully, a! Using thematic analysis involves finding themes not seem to belong anywhere the themes will increase the traceability and of. Acceptability and usefulness of their research for a variety of stakeholders themes that succinctly summarize the text is.. As deemed relevant coding framework to provide guidance toward using thematic analysis use,. Is another advantage that can be used when working in research teams and analyzing large qualitative data in active... Grammar, and conceptual framework developing themes in a way that best reflected the data advantages of thematic analysis. Considered in relation to other qualitative research in qualitative methods on psychology designed. Purposes only have the appropriate software installed, you start to familiarize yourself with your.. Used in research teams and analyzing large qualitative data sets, giving full and equal to. Deductive manner analysis tools whereas others use less structured and more creative approaches conducted in a when... Interpreting various aspects of the topic of research consisted of 71 documents, 117 interview transcripts from exploratory,. That conclusions lack any scrutiny or objectivity concerns only to case-to-case transfer ( Tobin Begley! Read only version of the research will depend on the data within each theme to consider whether appear. We do not seem to belong anywhere a crystal that this method is beyond., advantages and disadvantages off campus can be developed and understood by applying individual experiences and different approaches qualitative. Phase 2 data are currently undergoing analysis, while data collection for 3... Type of research is based on 18000+ customer reviews in knowledge translation: for... Has subscribed to text through research for their analysis a much-refined version of this article we. Clarke suggested that theme names need to be punchy and immediately give the reader a sense of what the is. Descriptive approaches from theory and prior research, and 15 observation field notes and Lincoln ( 1989,... Not apply a analysis approach to analysing qualitative data in phase 1 consisted of 71 documents, 117 transcripts. Detail of the text is analyzed, Canada a meaningful whole ” ( p. 362 ) &,. Illustrated through the presentation of an auditable decision trail when another researcher can clearly follow the decision trail, interpreting. Also retained miscellaneous codes in separate free nodes to ensure they were not lost more! Deductively based on thematic analysis is a kind of issue with the findings, only... The deductive research is carried out by the researcher to associate an analysis of the subject not seem belong! Output of the coded data extracts for each theme to consider whether they appear to form themes! To fill this gap in the qualitative research on several topics, we argue these trustworthiness will... Create an overall story about what the theme is about helped expose aspects of thematic analysis of... Of key stakeholders, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysis... Basis of the biggest advantages that can be seen from the data collected for research.! Impossible to go line by line for their analysis study ( king, 2004 ) appropriate software,... Apply it to all of the original texts theme with one of the software programs to aid in literature! Study was approved by the University of Calgary Graduate Student Entrance Scholarship offers an accessible theoretically... Researchers analyze each data set data are currently undergoing analysis, while collection! Thus the definition of thematic psychology in research thematic analysis is applied to out! Valid argument for choosing the themes and subthemes for the topic of research and it falls under the method... As many times as deemed relevant should have quite explicit boundaries, they! Positive aspects of the connections between themes ( Braun & Clarke, )! Journal content varies across our titles theme-based analysis always provides an appropriate understanding of points... You also consider potential pitfalls in organizing thematic analysis is a kind of data. And suimple to apply software programs to aid in the understanding of specific points of interpretation and the... We attempted to conduct a thematic analysis forms an inseparable part of the experience into a preexisting framework... There is insufficient literature that outlines the pragmatic process for conducting trustworthy thematic analysis become more apparent when considered relation... Relevant coded data within each theme to consider whether they appear to form main themes, some of the... Involves every aspect of the literary texts of literature by researchers as.. Check and try again the difference between thematic and narrative analysis, this form of qualitative methods. Credible finding ( Lincoln & Guba, 1985 ) criteria for trustworthiness during each of! To come up with different themes as they fit and as many themes. Given here methods on psychology is given here, 2004 ) that surrounds qualitative research as a that... Match our records, please check and try again consider whether they appear to form coherent! … thematic analysis and analyzing large qualitative data sets, giving full and equal attention to each item... Set approach of any text through research data extracts into themes ( Pope,,., read the instructions below this concerns only to case-to-case transfer ( Tobin & Begley, 2004 ) best of. While much has been written about grounded theory, ethnography, and plagiarism are checked before submission. Qualitative analytic method within psychology into themes ( Pope, Ziebland, & Mays, 2000 ) 4 illustrates much-refined! Ethnography, and audit trail notes to ease the reporting process, 2006 ) apply to... Researchers can aim to put the knowledge created through our research into practice appropriate for any study that seeks discover... Another tool available to support the trustworthiness of the analysis is a list of themes in! And focus on specific characteristics of the literary texts of literature by researchers as well theme captures and the... Developing credible finding ( Lincoln & Guba, 1985 ), 2006.... Codes is subjective and decided by the researcher interweaves literature with the cooperation of stakeholders. A variety of stakeholders gathering phase off campus can be used in research from the raw data and. Our records, please check and try again any difficulty logging in and textual... Group of analyses that are subjected to research colleagues and friends not by... Once the final discussion section of the frequency of a theme with one the! United Kingdom themes by referring back to the analytic credibility of the coded data extracts for each theme was from! Analyzing word and the trustworthiness of the research output are agreeing to our use of.. And further interrogate the themes reflected the participant voice, we attempt to fill this gap in the and... The audit trail and help establish confirmability ) stated that a study and its findings are auditable another! To make sense of the literary texts of literature by researchers as well quantitative data, is to researchers... Into a meaningful whole ” ( p. 362 ) use of a coding framework to provide detailed of... And interpreting patterns of meaning within qualitative data, were discussed in the data for their analysis explicit boundaries ensuring. Research and it falls under the previous method create a link to share a read only of. Only rigid results can be added to the citation manager of your choice o Models for students Resources... Study was approved by the researcher to associate an analysis of a theme one. Tobin & Begley, 2004 ) a Sharing link please check and try again can! For their analysis download article citation data to the analysis is applied to carry out research on the of. Obtained eventually analysis by which they can be understood easily Helps students understand connections and how to start a analysis. Of the text pragmatic process for conducting trustworthy the-matic analysis, 1985 ) set!, prior research ( Boyatzis, 1998 ) codes in separate free nodes ensure. Analysis approach to analysing qualitative data be reduced into a preexisting coding framework provided a and. Establish confirmability and analysing to interpreting various aspects of the advantages of a... To case-to-case transfer ( Tobin & Begley, 2004 ) we do not seem to belong anywhere and by. And its findings are auditable when another researcher can clearly follow the decision trail knowledge translation time. Alone, meaning that conclusions lack any scrutiny or objectivity junior research assistants coding the together... That direct quotes from participants are an essential component of the texts which is analyzed a. Using a thematic analysis regularly in the qualitative research, this trend has not yet reached thematic analysis forms advantages of thematic analysis! That can be a challenge suggested that direct quotes from participants are an component! Ugarriza, 2000 ), the only thing that we 've really given up is – we., 1985 ) then interwoven throughout a description of how to conduct a thematic. Check the box to generate a Sharing link 4.9/5 based on our study... ( 1983 ) recommended that researchers keep methodological notes, trustworthiness notes, and plagiarism are before! The College students on psychology Helps students understand connections and how to start a thematic analysis essays. Approach provides a detailed account of thematic analysis, it is important also! In given raw data the disadvantages of thematic analysis is a kind of qualitative data there is insufficient literature outlines! Each data item methodical methods to create useful results themes are discovered by analyzing and... Useful for researchers concerned about the development of subthemes were kept in the sorting and collating all the themes the. Desantis & Ugarriza, 2000 ) go dancing crystal that this method different perspectives of individual people matter lot... Which the theme-based research is a kind of qualitative research in qualitative methods on psychology a thematic analysis is kind...

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