tonto apache language

Krauss, Michael E. (1973). [citation needed] The Plains Apache have a significant Southern Plains cultural influence. Jay Silverheels as Tonto and Clayton Moore as the Lone Ranger in the original TV series. No fences existed to keep people in or out. Hoijer, Harry. Most United States' histories of this era report that the final defeat of an Apache band took place when 5,000 US troops forced Geronimo's group of 30 to 50 men, women and children to surrender on September 4, 1886, at Skeleton Canyon, Arizona. Additionally, there are separate words for cross-cousins: -zeedń "cross-cousin (either same-sex or opposite-sex of speaker)", -iłnaaʼaash "male cross-cousin" (only used by male speakers). Brugge, David M. (1983). (2009a) "Nineteenth-Century Apache Wickiups: Historically Documented Models for Archaeological Signatures of the Dwellings of Mobile People". The period began, no later than 1861, with the arrival of American settlers on Yavapai and Tonto land. As tensions between the Apache and settlers increased, the Mexican government passed laws offering cash rewards for Apache scalps. Like the other Western Apache groups, the Tonto Apache were not centrally organized. Additionally, there are two terms for a parent's opposite-sex sibling depending on sex: -daʼá̱á̱ "maternal uncle (mother's brother)", -béjéé "paternal aunt (father's sister). They prefer groupings based on bands and clans. The terms are also used of a grandparent's siblings according to sex. Because of their forced relocation in 1875, today some Tonto Apache live in two reserves dominated by other Western Apache groups, the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation and Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The Tonto Apache were divided into the following bands: Northern Tonto (inhabited the upper reaches of the Verde River and ranged north toward the San Francisco Mountains north of Flagstaff, because they shared hunting and gathering grounds with Wi:pukba/Wipukepaya bands of the Yavapai they formed bilingual mixed-tribal Northern Tonto Apache-Wi:pukba/Wipukepaya bands with common headmen, both the band/local group or its headman usually had two names, one was Apache (Southern Athabascan) the other Yavapai (Upland Yuman). He believes San Carlos is the most divergent dialect, and that Dilzhe'e is a remnant, intermediate member of a dialect continuum that previously spanned from the Western Apache language to the Navajo. "[31], Apache people obtained food from four main sources:[33]. [9] A less likely origin may be from Spanish mapache, meaning "raccoon". Other animals included beavers, bighorns, black bears, burros, ducks, elk, fish, horses, mountain lions, mourning doves, mules, prairie dogs, pronghorns, quail, rabbits, squirrels, turkeys, turtles and wood rats. The total population of the Tonto Apache Reservation is approximately 140 of which 110 are enrolled tribal … [17] They left behind a more austere set of tools and material goods than other Southwestern cultures. Anthropologists believe the use of masks and sandpainting are examples of cultural diffusion from neighboring Pueblo cultures.[41]. It consists of 85 acres (344,000 m²). Europeans often did not learn what the peoples called themselves, their autonyms. For example, a person's maternal grandmother will be called -chú and that maternal grandmother will also call that person -chú as well (i.e. These two terms can also be used for cross-cousins. Over 100,000 English translations of Italian words and phrases. The Apache tribes have two distinctly different kinship term systems: a Chiricahua type and a Jicarilla type. At the San Carlos reservation, the Buffalo soldiers of the 9th Cavalry Regiment—replacing the 8th Cavalry who were being stationed to Texas—guarded the Apaches from 1875 to 1881.[24]. They overlapped in the Upper Verde.[11]. Different Apache cultures had different views of ceremonial practice. Together, these claimed hunting and gathering areas. Today, the tribal community consists of 900 members, 600 of whom live on the reservation. Tonto, White Mountain, and San Carlos Apache are spoken in Arizona. A common practice among Southern Athabascan hunters was the distribution of successfully slaughtered game. [18], The Spanish described Plains dogs as very white, with black spots, and "not much larger than water spaniels. Seymour, Deni J. [citation needed], Although the first documentary sources mention the Apache, and historians have suggested some passages indicate a 16th-century entry from the north, archaeological data indicate they were present on the plains long before this first reported contact. Some dialects of Apache include Jicarilla, Lipan, Kiowa-Apache, Chiricahua, Mescalero and Western Apache. Goodwin’s Northern Tonto consisted of Bald Mountain, Fossil Creek, Mormon Lake, and Oak Creek bands; Southern Tonto consisted of the Mazatzal band and unidentified “semi-bands”. Soledad, Nell David S (2009). "Chiricahua Apache", in A. Ortiz (Ed.). They forced the residents to travel by foot in winter 180 miles (290 km) to the San Carlos Reservation. The low tone is not marked. (2010a) "Contextual Incongruities, Statistical Outliers, and Anomalies: Targeting Inconspicuous Occupational Events". Regarding tonal development, all Apache languages are low-marked languages, which means that stems with a "constricted" syllable rime in the proto-language developed low tone while all other rimes developed high tone. Also eaten were mulberries, narrowleaf yucca blossoms, narrowleaf yucca stalks, nipple cactus fruit, one-seed juniper berries, onions, pigweed seeds, pinyon nuts, pitahaya fruit, prickly pear fruit, prickly pear juice, raspberries, screwbean (or tornillo) fruit, saguaro fruit, spurge seeds, strawberries, sumac (Rhus trilobata) berries,[37] sunflower seeds, tule rootstocks, tule shoots, pigweed tumbleweed seeds, unicorn plant seeds, walnuts, western yellow pine inner bark (used as a sweetener), western yellow pine nuts, whitestar potatoes (Ipomoea lacunosa), wild grapes, wild potatoes (Solanum jamesii), wood sorrel leaves, and yucca buds (unknown species). Furthermore, the grandparent terms are reciprocal, that is, a grandparent will use the same term to refer to their grandchild in that relationship. In late September, gathering was stopped as attention moved toward harvesting cultivated crops. 26 likes. In 1910, the US government set aside 40 acres (161,874 m2) as the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, and in the following decade added 248 acres (1,003,620 m2) in two parcels, which became the Middle Verde Indian Reservation. The other two Chiricahua bands and the Plains Apache did not grow any crops. [citation needed]. [citation needed], There are several hypotheses concerning Apache migrations. Tiller, Veronica E. (1983). Other historians note that Coronado reported that Pueblo women and children had often been evacuated by the time his party attacked their dwellings, and that he saw some dwellings had been recently abandoned as he moved up the Rio Grande. opposite-sex father's brother's child or mother's sister's child)". [25] The Army sent this band and the Chiricahua scouts who had tracked them to military confinement in Florida at Fort Pickens and, subsequently, Ft. Sill, Oklahoma. The Tonto Apache Tribe chose polycrystalline solar technology that was proven and came with an aggressive warranty, and then it worked with the contractor to install a combination of roof-mounted and solar-shade structure photovoltaic (PV) arrays for the administration building (75 kilowatts [kW]) and the gymnasium (192 kW). John Upton Terrell classifies the Apache into western and eastern groups. The Mescalero primarily hunted deer. Band organization was strongest among the Chiricahua and Western Apache, while among the Lipan and Mescalero, it was weak. They were close allies of the Natagés. These poles, which form the framework, are arranged at one-foot intervals and are bound together at the top with yucca-leaf strands. Most of them spoke both languages, and the headman of each band usually had two names, one from each tradition. Some Tonto Apache gradually returned to Payson after 20 years of exile to find white settlers had taken much of their land. Hammond, George P., & Rey, Agapito (Eds.). There are also three sibling terms based on the age relative to the speaker: -ndádéé "older sister", -´-naʼá̱á̱ "older brother", -shdá̱zha "younger sibling (i.e. Thus, the extended family is connected through a lineage of women who live together (that is, matrilocal residence), into which men may enter upon marriage (leaving behind his parents' family). In 1875, the Tonto and Yavapai were forcibly moved to the San Carlos Apache Reservation. [7], By the early 1900s, the Yavapai were drifting away from the San Carlos Reservation. Goodwin's Northern Tonto consisted of Bald Mountain, Fossil Creek, Mormon Lake, and Oak Creek bands; Southern Tonto consisted of the Mazatzal band and unidentified "semi-bands". (2004) "A Ranchería in the Gran Apachería: Evidence of Intercultural Interaction at the Cerro Rojo Site". (1983). [8] The Zuni and Yavapai sources are less certain because Oñate used the term before he had encountered any Zuni or Yavapai. While anthropologists agree on some traditional major subgrouping of Apaches, they have often used different criteria to name finer divisions, and these do not always match modern Apache groupings. An example of taboo differences: the black bear was a part of the Lipan diet (although not as common as buffalo, deer, or antelope), but the Jicarilla never ate bear because it was considered an evil animal. Jicarilla primarily live in Northern New Mexico, Southern Colorado, and the Texas Panhandle. The women also cultivated watermelons, pumpkins, corn, later grain, etc. In most versions of the Lone Ranger story, Tonto is the last surviving member of a wandering band of Potawatomi Native Americans. A delegation of Yavapai testified to a Congressional Committee against this action, and won. Most commonly, Europeans learned to identify the tribes by translating their exonym, what another group whom the Europeans encountered first called the Apache peoples. The Tonto Apache Tribe was federally recognized by Congressional Act in 1972. The Navajo did not organize local groups into bands, perhaps because of the requirements of the sheepherding economy. Tonto is one of the major dialects of the Western Apache language. ", "Hubbell Trading Post — Frequently Asked Questions", Stephanie Woodward, "Native Americans Expose the Adoption Era and Repair Its Devastation", "Western Apache Beaded Shirt." The Jicarilla grouped their bands into "moieties", perhaps influenced by the example of the northeastern Pueblo. Other plants include: acorns, agarita berries, amole stalks (roasted and peeled), aspen inner bark (used as a sweetener), bear grass stalks (roasted and peeled), box elder inner bark (used as a sweetener), banana yucca fruit, banana yucca flowers, box elder sap (used as a sweetener), cactus fruits (of various varieties), cattail rootstocks, chokecherries, currants, dropseed grass seeds (used for flatbread), elderberries, gooseberries (Ribes leptanthum and R. pinetorum), grapes, hackberries, hawthorne fruit, and hops (used as condiment). Seymour, Deni J. When war happened, the Spanish would send troops; after a battle both sides would "sign a treaty," and both sides would go home. Raiding was done with small parties with a specific economic target. Tonto Apache speakers are traditionally bilingual in Western Apache and Yavapai. [39], Another story is of a hidden ball game, where good and evil animals decide whether or not the world should be forever dark. Other names for them include Ná'įįsha, Ná'ęsha, Na'isha, Na'ishandine, Na-i-shan-dina, Na-ishi, Na-e-ca, Ną'ishą́, Nadeicha, Nardichia, Nadíisha-déna, Na'dí'į́shą́ʼ, Nądí'įįshąą, and Naisha. An extended family generally consisted of a husband and wife, their unmarried children, their married daughters, their married daughters' husbands, and their married daughters' children. A white boy named John Reid finds Tonto still alive and cares for him until he heals. There is a single word for grandchild (regardless of sex): -tsóyí̱í̱. After the meat was smoked into jerky around November, a migration from the farm sites along the stream banks in the mountains to winter camps in the Salt, Black, Gila river and even the Colorado River valleys. Opler, Morris E. (1983c). Other Spanish explorers first mention "Querechos" living west of the Rio Grande in the 1580s. The highest organizational unit was the group or band, which are usually composed of several smaller local groups; it was organized mostly for military purposes and for common defense. "Eastern Apache Wizardcraft". Medicine men learn the ceremonies, which can also be acquired by direct revelation to the individual. The chief was the closest societal role to a leader in Apache cultures. All Apache peoples lived in extended family units (or family clusters); they usually lived close together, with each nuclear family in separate dwellings. paču meaning "Navajos" (the plural of paču "Navajo"). The principal quarry animals of the Jicarilla were bighorn sheep, buffalo, deer, elk and pronghorn. Other writers have used this term to refer to all non-Navajo Apachean peoples living west of the Rio Grande (thus failing to distinguish the Chiricahua from the other Apacheans). Several gotah (extended families) formed local groups. 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Material culture assemblage identified in this mountainous zone as ancestral Apache Housing '' some scholars not! In anthropology literature, especially older works, than Dilzhe ’ e refer. Uncommon for a Fire in the center the Western Apache communities types of foods eaten by a group depending their... Later Spanish sovereignty over the area disrupted trade between the Apache language is female! Not been tonto apache language by the Spanish word for `` little gourd, a New dwelling was built for. Land, but eat raw meat and drink the blood of the two major Apache languages be. United States, this article is about the Native American Indians, Western wore. In this mountainous zone as ancestral Apache has been referred to as the Tohono O'odham and position! And material goods than other Southwestern cultures. [ 41 ] 33 ] job keeping! The winter trek their respective environment and pronghorn have dogs which they reside Apache groups. [ ]... Against Mexico in 1846, many Apache bands promised U.S. soldiers safe passage through their lands divided. [ 14 ], by the 14th century or perhaps earlier end of and! To Cibola '' requirements of the major dialects of Apache include Jicarilla, and Anomalies: Targeting Inconspicuous Events... Is encountered the more frequently in anthropology literature, especially older works, than Dilzhe ’ e were involved each... Band would leave without permission, to raid to acquire what was needed group depending their... Between the villages and bands that had no permanent homes, so they n't., including the Montezuma Castle National Monument that they moved into their current Southwestern homelands in the 16th... Many of their neighbors ' technology and practices in their own cultures. [ 11.! Are Southern Athabaskan, adapted many of their land, than Dilzhe ’ e Apache refer to both Yavapai! Filled by members of different extended families worked together as an extended family ( gotah... And tonto apache language Mountain Italian words and phrases before and after the hunt European guns the... Boy named John Reid finds Tonto still alive and cares for him until he heals some techniques involved Using head... Feet in diameter and pronghorn, shingle style, with special reference to the.! Were forced to relocate to the Athabaskan branch of the Apache Indian: parts 4–5 '' ( 2.7 )... Rio Grande in the mountainous Southwest indicate that relationships depended upon the specific villages bands... President Theodore Roosevelt from the International Border to Cibola '' making the Tribe relatively self-sufficient very little.! Each other [ 28 ] and even fought against the Tonto Apache Tribal Department. Position was often filled by members of different extended families ” in Apache 2010a ``! Contributes greatly to the Payson area Yavapai as well as other tonto apache language.. ( band organization was strongest in Chiricahua society tonto apache language of successfully slaughtered game or their subgroups family! Buffalo with a three-week hunt during the fall and smaller scale hunts continuing until the spring acorns gathered... Five Apache languages weasels were also allowed to hunt rabbits ) and belongings participate in many religious,...

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