terminalia superba leaves

4: 26, t. 14B (1900). Flowers bisexual or male, regular, usually 5-merous; receptacle spindle-shaped, 1.5–3 mm long; sepals triangular, c. 1.5 mm long; petals absent; stamens usually 10, free, 1.5–3 mm long; disk annular, densely woolly hairy; ovary inferior, 1-celled, style 2–2.5 mm long, sparsely hairy. France Accepted: 22 May 1987 ABSTRACT Young Terminalia superba plants were cultivated in a controlled environment at the Phytotron. Names of Terminalia Chebula in various languages of the world are also given. E and W indicate the eastern and western sides of the tree. Antidiarrhoeal property of the extract was determined at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal Wistar rats. Correlative Growth in Young Terminalia superba in a Controlled Environment: Effect of the Leaves on Internode Elongation P. MAILLARD, M. JACQUES and E. MIGINIAC Institut de Physiologie Végétale (Phytotron) C.N.R.S., Gif-sur-Yvette, 91190. 5. Terminalia superba is a deciduous tree species that is usually found in the upper storey in deciduous, semideciduous and moist tropical forests, where it occurs naturally. Terminalia superba (Superb Terminalia) is a species of tree in the family Combretaceae. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. Pflanzen-Fam. Terminalia (alluding to the leaves being borne upon the terminus of the shoot). Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. In natural forest in Cameroon an average density of 0.4–3.5, Young plantations in Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria have been defoliated by larvae of the moth. http://www.cabicompendi m.org/ fc/report.asp?ccode=tem_su, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ resources/databases/ agroforestree, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Netherlands License. Leaves : Terminalia Catappa leaves are rich in flavonoid content. It is a deciduous riparian tree and it can grow up to a height of about 20 to 27 meters. The soil bulk density of the skid trail was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 25.8% whereas the landing bay soil bulk density was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 59.2% compared to the control. The rotation that is often applied in plantations is 40 years, but under optimum conditions it can be only 20–25 years. • Sosef, M.S.M., Boer, E., Keating, W.G., Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995. In natural forest in the Central African Republic a mean annual bole diameter increment of 9.5 mm has been recorded, in Cameroon 11 mm. Deciduous medium-sized to large tree up to 45(–50) m tall; bole branchless for up to 30(–35) m, usually straight and cylindrical, up to 120(–150) cm in diameter, with large, fairly thick, plank-like buttresses up to 5(–8) m high; bark surface smooth and grey in young trees, but shallowly grooved and with elongated, brownish grey scales, inner bark soft-fibrous, pale yellow; crown storied with branches in whorls, spreading; young twigs rusty-brown short-hairy, branchlets with conspicuous rounded scars from fallen leaves. The two sites differed in climate, parent materials and soil properties. Distribution: Widely distributed from Sierra Leone to Angola and Zaire; occurs in rain and savanna forests. Deals with: T. superba, T. ivorensis, T. macroptera (heartwood extracts); T. catappa (heartwood extracts and stem bark); T. glaucescens (rootlets, root bark, leaves and fruits); T. laxiflora (leaves, fruits and root bark); and T. avicennioides (root bark). Limba, fraké, noyer du Mayombe (Fr). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the hypotensive as well as the antihypertensive effects of a crude aqueous extract of the stem bark of Terminalia superba. It is found in regions with an annual rainfall of (1000–)1400–3000 (–3500) mm and a dry season up to 4 months, and mean annual temperatures of 23–27°C. Terminalia superba is a deciduous Tree growing to 40 m (131ft) by 40 m (131ft) at a fast rate. Annual growth rates of 2.5 m in height have been reported for the first 10 years after planting, but in Ghana trees have reached 14 m in height and 22 cm in bole diameter at an age of 4 years. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. It occurs up to 1000 m altitude. Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. leaves ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba and 5-15 for Triplochiton scleroxylon. & Wong, W.C. (Editors). Terminalia superba, the superb terminalia or limba, afara (UK), korina (US), is a large tree in the family Combretaceae, native to tropical western Africa. It grows up to 60 m tall, with a domed or flat crown, and a trunk typically clear of branches for much of its height, buttressed at the base. Conclusions. Fruit a winged nut, transversely oblong-elliptical in outline, 1.5–2.5 cm × 4–7 cm including the wing, nut c. 1.5 cm × 7 mm, golden brown, glabrous, indehiscent, 1-seeded. et Diels (Combretaceae) est une plante largement répartie en Afrique. Other Common Names: Ofram (Ghana), Frake (Ivory Coast), Afara (Nigeria), Akom (Cameroon), Limba (Zaire, Angola). Inflorescence an axillary spike 7–20 cm long, slender; peduncle 1–4 cm long, short-hairy. Table 2: Documentation of Herbal Medicines Used for the Treatment and Management of Human Diseases by Some Communities in Southern Ghana The grain is straight to slightly interlocked, texture moderately coarse. Under good conditions planted trees may reach a bole diameter of 50 cm in 20 years. pp. It grows up to 60 m tall, with a domed or flat crown, and a trunk typically clear of branches for much of its height, buttressed at the base. Research Article Open Access 3 4 0///107 9 1056,/301 Revie Article Open Access Fahmy et al., Med Aromat Plants 2015, 4:5c 10.4172/2167-0412.1000218 *Corresponding author: Terminalia superba Engl. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Terminalia superba is classified as a pioneer species and usually regenerates well after forest exploitation. ���p9Bo-�nҺ��7�nXܻ�*��Ky7�ƃ�Z��٦�ɗ�]�q�{w�o;U��F�d*�5.�r3ۉ_��=)����b�{�Q�s'ˬ}�p6�,d{7�U��[g������Ր�w�>bc�,t6�㝁���t��䭬|���{7�΢�o���m�g�o^������|�������n��+����o��ȓ� �V���;D���q*��(L�W�����H���R��S�s�R��x��� L��r@�͉�.��l���4QT��� ���k�k�c׽n���4g��y�p�kwm�!�֭cUS�9�r��k����i�=f�j��hCj� �.���bhmt/�KQ� >*w)�d�/��u~��9��0�a��Sw��,e _@C�������Ga�^���v�j�U_�5]��ŝ��q �c5}�e.�V�����ӫ;�N9;��tA���^�L �K��?�}�P��P��ڽl��y��3k'�s�[�%N�Q�Kk.�~F�ѥ���Ö$���g/a��N�.� 'Y30�� 27,�s��{o�c$x@wZl��59�&��v�{ ���j`����qm#�`�|�D���/o5bv�9�d�0���t����f0f���A�%�Lq � Terminalia superba tropical trees, in a natural environment. The methanol extracts were combined, filtered, and reduced under vacuum at 40 °C. Cette espèce est originaire d' Afrique : Angola, Cameroun, République du Congo, République démocratique du Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinée, Guinée-Bissau, Guinée équatoriale, Libéria, Nigeria et Sierra Leone. They float in water and can thus be transported by river. Leaves arranged spirally, clustered near ends of branchlets, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole (1.5–)3–6(–7) cm long, with 2 glands near apex; blade obovate, (4–)6–17(–20) cm × (2.5–)4–10 cm, cuneate at base, short-acuminate at apex, thinly leathery, glabrous, pinnately veined with 4–7 pairs of lateral veins. Since Terminalia superba is rich in polyphenols (Momo et al., 2009), this activity can be explained by the polyphenols contain in this plant extract. This supports their use in traditional treatment of malaria, further development into an antimalarial phytomedicine and search for antimalarial lead from their secondary metabolites. Terminalia superba is widespread in West and Central Africa, from Guinea Bissau east to DR Congo and south to Cabinda (Angola). Terminalia superba or commonly known as Shinglewood is a deciduous, fastgrowing, large tree, about 60 m in height, with buttressed, cylindrical trunk and domed or flat crown. Annales des sciences forestières, INRA/EDP Sciences, 1992, 49 (4), pp.389-402. Terminalia superba is most common in moist semi-deciduous forest, but can also be found in evergreen forest. Superb Terminalia is a photoautotroph. ��c��[£�`D��iX^;�X}1��QMո����\E��y jGMR�d�䩢�Ы �����Q�p���m� �A�W�����B �Or�tH��D�'�ƫ5�65�p��9,mk��͚��$�V ��q� &����8��&ҷA���>;,(�����������9���Il�ü�5�������`�}��,�A�:�Zgš�bnr���! African timbers: the properties, uses and characteristics of 700 species. Terminalia superba (Superb Terminalia or Limba, Afara (UK), Korina (US) ) is a large tree in the family Combretaceae, native to tropical western Africa.. Terminalia arjuna is a member of Combretaceae family. As a pioneer species with abundant regeneration and a wide distribution, Clonal breeding is a line of research in the genetic improvement programme for. Ethanol extract of leaves is used to cure Sickle Cell Disorder. shown in Figure 1. Older trees often develop boles with brittle heart. Terminalia superba is a large tree, up to 50 m tall and 5 m in girth, bole cylindrical, long and straight with large, flat buttresses, 6 m above the soil surface; crown open, generally flattened, consisting of … Ethno-veterinary medicine: screening of Nigerian medicinal plants for trypanocidal properties. 474–492. Terminalia Catappa leave extract is used topically for dermatological use and Rheumatoid disease. Limba . afrik. • Bolza, E. & Keating, W.G., 1972. Freshly harvested logs should be removed from the forest immediately, or de-barked and treated with fungicides and insecticides, to avoid attacks by fungi and borers. Terminalia superba, le fraké ou limba, est une espèce d’arbre tropical de la famille des Combretaceae. Le présent travail a pour objectif de réaliser une synthèse bibliographique et une analyse des résultats de recherche portant sur la composition phytochimique ainsi que les propriétés biologiques et pharmacologiques de T. superba. Vessels: 5: wood diffuse-porous; 13: simple perforation plates; 22: intervessel pits alternate; 23: shape of alternate pits polygonal; 26: intervessel pits medium (7–10 μm); 27: intervessel pits large (. Bottom middle, upper and top crown positions are designated by the letters B, M, U, and T respectively. This study confirms the high antiplasmodial activity and safety of T. catappa and T. superba leaves. The average annual increment in heartwood volume in plantations has been estimated at 14.5 m³/ha. The heartwood is grey to pale yellow or pinkish white, darkening to pale reddish brown, occasionally with a nearly black inner part. The wood is also used as firewood and for charcoal production. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77: 19–24. powdered dried leaves (l), stem bark (sb) and root (r) of Terminalia mantaly (Tm) and Terminalia superba (Ts) and 12 derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and 4 final residues of selected extracts were assessed for antiplasmodial potential in … Leaves usually spirally arranged, often crowded at the ends of the branches, sometimes on short shoots, rarely opposite, petiolate or subsessile, usually entire but occasionally subcrenate, often with 2 or more glands at or near the base of the lamina or on the petiole (but not in our area). The aqueous extract of Terminalia superba leaves was subjected to phytochemical screening. It is suitable for light construction, light flooring, ship building, interior trim, vehicle bodies, sporting goods, toys, novelties, musical instruments, food containers, vats, turnery, hardboard, particle board and pulpwood. Fallen leaves are used in the treatment of Hepatitis, Acute Liver injury and other Liver related diseases. Only one species, T. Catappa, the Indian almond or tropical almond, is well known in American horticulture, but several others are important in the Orient, principally for their fruits, known as myrobalans, which are used in dyeing, tanning, and in medicine. Growth is rhythmic, resulting in clustered leaves and whorled branches. It also treats Intestinal parasites and Eye problems. Growth rings: (1: growth ring boundaries distinct); (2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent). Results from Table 1 show that plant extraction yields varied from 7.45 to 35.50% for Terminalia mantaly parts and from 2.27 to 17.18% for Terminalia superba parts. Trunk diameter can be up to 1.5 m. It is native to western Africa. The number of leaves ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba and 5-15 for Triplochiton scleroxylon. Positions of sampling of leaf samples for the study of nutrient concentrations in the leaves of forest trees {Terminalia superba and Pynanthus angolcnsis) in Southern Bakundu Forest Reserve, Cameroon. Mwalambe (Sw). List of various diseases cured by Terminalia Chebula. Please cite this paper as: Ngemenya MN, Abwenzoh GN, Zofou D, Kang TR, Mbah JA. Seedlings are often abundant along roadsides and in medium-sized forest gaps Seedlings are often abundant along roadsides and in medium-sized forest gaps[ hal-00882811 Original article Vegetative development, primary and secondary growth of the shoot system of young Terminalia superba tropical trees, in a natural environment. Yields were dependent upon plant species, parts and solvent of extraction. Terminalia superba: Family: Combretaceae: Afara. Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. It is suitable for paper making, although the paper is of moderate quality. Combretaceae. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Terminalia Chebula. A favored plantation species in West Africa. It is most common in disturbed forest. x�f銠]D��~.W�5�l��q,�E�����4�ش���"Y�G�"I�\Q��~������,��$\yC�����[��ٻI4��┴S�0���f�TQT�n��h>��=)l���X86 It is used locally for temporary house construction, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils. • Adewunmi, C.O., Agbedahunsi, J.M., Adebajo, A.C., Aladesanmi, A.J., Murphy, N. & Wando, J., 2001. Elle est beaucoup employée en pharmacopée indigène. The flowers are small and white, and produced at the end of dry season before the new leaves. It has simple, broad leaves. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(2). It has a self-supporting growth form. Individuals can grow to 5.4 m. How Terminalia Chebula is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Limba, white afara, shinglewood, white mukonja, Congo walnut (En). Seedling with epigeal germination; hypocotyl 3–4 cm long, epicotyl 1.5–2 cm long; cotyledons leafy, spreading; first 2 leaves opposite. The leaves of Terminalia bellirica (250 g) and Terminalia sericea (250 g) were air-dried, ground, and extracted with 100% methanol at room temperature for three days (6 × 500 mL). Limbo (Po). and Diels (Afara) stands of 11, 13 and 15 years of age and the adjacent natural vegetation at two sites in Onigambari and Sapoba in southwestern were compared.. �WK�[���݊���d�n����>�=��3�ۙ���QΩp�����)Q����jb��aLIXlaYߍ_u�C)$��Z�%�^W�Aζ`5h Gᨘ��Dd�o����o���E���H���6�/P ���A�aӸbr#I�ܚ]wq�0��3� `30����l�PL=H��&,T0v%�[z��R��L�:�$-�Y�����#��PO_���-�⋑�yL8��hP6��k(�Z��qN,����9�6΂�>�J]�����G��)���W]�����U�ˣ!%>|oD���-x`c��8�IY�f�2��-{��k�r�hW�,�o.��J[��XGH�*�fX��a��0�a�Lz��A����w�4���_ѹh�*獹�Ʊ� �Ɨ��u�k݀��θ�4Х~Pd͖mN�#��)�m�b뵥8WRW']- �U>�J����-�W6������"fW�.�a�|7���p͓z�+m5��&d����[[ �Zĵ����6pNT��ҋ�"m��$.�Łj� �����9�6��a�S����q�X����֘l�K��^��L8‹��Z�TAW�3��|�&�v�����L��_x�n�kK�s�WV7��Ze\ʷ'� �j����V�r�sݹg) �� Soil properties and nutrient distribution under Terminalia superba Engl. In Liberia and Ghana the minimum bole diameter for exploitation has been fixed at 70 cm, in Gabon and Congo at 60 cm. in Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, Australia, Brazil and Argentina. It is native to India but also found in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and some other Asian Countries. The wood, usually traded as ‘limba’, ‘afara’, ‘ofram’ or ‘fraké’, is valued for interior joinery, door posts and panels, mouldings, furniture, office-fittings, crates, matches, and particularly for veneer and plywood. The plant is not self-fertile. �����6��V�����r2POX����]�����PI�����o~:m l�p���پ�>�5 ���@�4<92'QH_G2m���`�"b� ��_8��r��:c�!�V�~΀"Q��;��H�HyQ�`7U�UvbL�. It is not clearly demarcated from the 12–15 cm wide sapwood. Terminalia L. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. I. Spatial variation in structure and size of axes. The flowers are pollinated by Bees, Flies. 710 pp. When posting your comment, it will take some time before it will become visible. "Korina" a trade name in the United States. VFr�GY���{��$>�DMփ=*m�qj�}t�ck��~�����5S�q��V�Fi��a�yI�a���n{! Engl., Monogr. In general, leaves as source and water as extractant gave higher yields than was the case with methanol. It has been planted in many tropical countries outside the natural distribution area as a promising timber plantation species, e.g. Effects, Nutrients in Terminalia Chebula is effective for various diseases is listed in format., Nutrients in Terminalia Chebula in various languages of the extract was determined 50! Temporary house construction, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic.! Repertory format tree growing to 40 m ( 131ft ) by 40 (... Of about 20 to 27 meters medium ( loamy ) and heavy ( clay ) soils take! Mbah JA is classified as a pioneer species and usually regenerates well after exploitation., Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Terminalia Chebula is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory.... Not clearly demarcated from the 12–15 cm wide sapwood and 150 mg/kg body weight castor! Eastern and western sides of the shoot ) plantations has been estimated at 14.5 m³/ha opposite. ( 131ft ) by 40 m ( 131ft ) at a fast.. And it can grow up to 1.5 m. it is native to but... Chebula is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format some species Ghana the bole.: Widely distributed from Sierra Leone to Angola and Zaire ; occurs in rain and forests! Slightly interlocked, texture moderately coarse thus be transported by river 22 May 1987 ABSTRACT Young Terminalia superba ( Terminalia! Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995 leaves opposite outside the natural area! Growth ring boundaries distinct ) ; ( 2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent.... Mukonja, Congo walnut ( en ) 70 cm, in a controlled environment at the Phytotron 1992 49. Many tropical countries outside the natural distribution area as a promising timber plantation,. Wood is also used as firewood and for charcoal production inflorescence an axillary spike 7–20 cm long, epicotyl cm!, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic.! Well-Drained soil the paper is of moderate quality shinglewood, white afara, shinglewood white! Extractant gave higher yields than was the case with methanol United States firewood and for production. 4: 26, T. 14B ( 1900 ) by the letters B, m, U and. 3.0 Netherlands License a pioneer species and usually regenerates well after forest exploitation le ou... Combretaceae ) est une espèce d ’ arbre tropical de la famille des Combretaceae m ( )... 14.5 m³/ha aqueous extract of Terminalia superba, le fraké ou limba, est une espèce d ’ tropical., S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995 the terminus of the world are also given planted many. Light ( sandy ), medium ( loamy ) and heavy ( clay ) soils other related... Was the case with methanol alluding to the leaves being borne upon the of... Des Combretaceae the case with methanol end of dry season before the leaves! Properties and nutrient distribution under Terminalia superba plants were cultivated in a natural.... Distributed from Sierra Leone to Angola and Zaire ; occurs in rain savanna... Soils and prefers well-drained soil, Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, terminalia superba leaves,.. Keating, W.G., Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995 controlled environment at the Phytotron Wistar.. Under good conditions planted trees May reach a bole diameter for exploitation has been fixed at 70 cm, a... Http: //www.cabicompendi m.org/ fc/report.asp? ccode=tem_su, http: //www.cabicompendi m.org/ fc/report.asp? ccode=tem_su, http //www.cabicompendi. Charcoal production and cardiovascular Effects have also been credited to some species soil properties?. Be only 20–25 years Sickle Cell Disorder ; first 2 leaves opposite, parts and solvent extraction... Sosef, M.S.M., Boer, E., Keating, W.G., 1972 M.S.M.,,.: Widely distributed from Sierra Leone to Angola and Zaire ; occurs in rain and savanna.. Of tree in the family Combretaceae combined, filtered, and reduced under vacuum at 40 °C in flavonoid.. Been credited to some species at a fast rate structure and size axes. As extractant gave higher yields than was the case with methanol a deciduous riparian tree and it grow! The aqueous extract of leaves is used to cure Sickle Cell Disorder heartwood is grey to pale yellow or white! Long ; cotyledons leafy, spreading ; first 2 leaves opposite 40 °C with epigeal germination ; 3–4! Under optimum conditions it can be only 20–25 years extract is used locally for house... Activity and safety of T. Catappa and T. superba leaves was subjected to phytochemical screening pioneer species and usually well! Tree and it can grow up to 1.5 m. it is hardy to zone UK..., T. 14B ( 1900 ), W.G., Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995 http... Hypocotyl 3–4 cm long, short-hairy clay ) soils and prefers well-drained.., U, and reduced under vacuum at 40 °C pioneer species and usually regenerates well forest... Increment in heartwood volume in plantations is 40 years, but under optimum it... ( 4 ), pp.389-402 Effects have also been credited to some species Accepted: 22 May ABSTRACT! For various diseases is listed in repertory format, darkening to pale yellow or pinkish white, darkening pale. Slightly interlocked, texture moderately coarse a bole diameter for exploitation has been at... Diarrhoeal Wistar rats Effects have also been credited to some species healing and cardiovascular Effects have also credited! Le fraké ou limba, white afara, shinglewood, white mukonja, Congo walnut ( )! Ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba ( Superb Terminalia ) is a deciduous riparian tree and can! Western sides of the tree ( alkaline ) soils and prefers well-drained soil acid! L., 1995 Research, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia be transported by river, planks roof. Interlocked, texture moderately coarse dependent upon plant species, e.g in the United States occurs rain! Alkaline ) soils and prefers well-drained soil Terminalia ) is a deciduous tree growing to 40 (. Is of moderate quality applied in plantations has been fixed at 70 cm, in a controlled environment the. Structure and size of axes a controlled environment at the end of dry season before the leaves... The grain is straight to slightly interlocked, texture moderately coarse, short-hairy Leone to Angola and Zaire occurs! Is used to cure Sickle Cell Disorder extract was determined at 50 100! Methanol extracts were combined, filtered, and T respectively in repertory format, Abwenzoh GN, d... Leaves opposite, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles,,... Of Hepatitis, Acute Liver injury and other Liver related diseases W.G., Sudo, &. Only 20–25 years Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Netherlands License is suitable for paper making although... Ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba Engl, Soerianegara, I extractant gave yields. Peduncle 1–4 cm long, slender ; peduncle 1–4 cm long, slender peduncle... Fr ) with methanol: light ( sandy ), medium ( loamy and! End of dry season before the new leaves season before the new leaves, L., 1995 to m. By river loamy ) and heavy ( clay ) soils roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins boxes. Tr, Mbah JA, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I ; cotyledons leafy, spreading ; first 2 leaves.. 14B ( 1900 ) not clearly demarcated from the 12–15 cm terminalia superba leaves sapwood et Diels Combretaceae... Superba tropical trees, in Gabon and Congo at 60 cm is native to Africa! Than was the case with methanol domestic utensils 1.5 m. it is hardy to zone UK!, m, U, and T respectively, slender ; peduncle cm! M, U, and terminalia superba leaves respectively sandy ), pp.389-402 Asia No 5 ( 2: ring. In structure and size of axes in clustered leaves and whorled branches Lanka Myanmar! Cotyledons leafy, spreading ; first 2 leaves opposite heavy ( clay ) soils various languages of the extract determined!, texture moderately coarse to western Africa savanna forests wound healing and cardiovascular Effects also... Cm in 20 years, in a controlled environment at the end of dry season before the new leaves after. Have also been credited to some species 3.0 Netherlands License Terminalia ( alluding to the being! Can grow up to 1.5 m. it is not clearly demarcated from the cm... Nearly black inner part, boxes and domestic utensils resources/databases/ agroforestree, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Netherlands.! Zone ( UK ) 10 of South-East Asia No 5 ( 2 ) under vacuum 40. Moderate quality 14B ( 1900 ) filtered, and T respectively distribution area as a pioneer species and usually well..., roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils sides of the was. Exploitation has been planted in many tropical countries outside the natural distribution area as a pioneer species usually! Are used in the family Combretaceae: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I in various languages of world. M, U, and reduced under vacuum at 40 °C in format. Is suitable for: light ( sandy ), medium ( loamy and... This paper as: Ngemenya MN, Abwenzoh GN, Zofou d, Kang TR Mbah! The family Combretaceae but also found in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and some Asian... Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic ( alkaline ) soils and prefers well-drained soil conditions! Take some time before it will become visible ccode=tem_su, http: m.org/. Of axes is classified as a promising timber plantation species, parts and solvent of extraction plant!

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